Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 113–130 | Cite as

3D modelling of hydrothermal alteration associated with VHMS deposits in the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, northern Sweden

  • Riia M. ChmielowskiEmail author
  • Nils Jansson
  • Mac Fjellerad Persson
  • Pia Fagerström


This contribution presents a 3D assessment of metamorphosed and deformed, hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, hosting the massive sulphide deposits of the Kristineberg area in the 1.9 Ga Skellefte mining district in northern Sweden, using six calculated alteration parameters: the Ishikawa alteration index, the chlorite–carbonate–pyrite index and calculated net mass changes in MgO, SiO2, Na2O and Ba. The results, which are also available as film clips in the Supplementary data, confirm inferences from geological mapping; namely that the sericite- and chlorite-rich alteration zones have complex and cross-cutting geometries and that most of these zones are semi-regional in extent and range continuously from surface to over a kilometre deep. The major known massive sulphide deposits occur proximal to zones characterised by coincidence of high values for the alteration index and chlorite–carbonate–pyrite index and large MgO gains, which corresponds to zones rich in magnesian silicates. These zones are interpreted as the original chlorite-rich, proximal parts the alteration systems, and form anomalies extending up to 400 m away from the sulphide lenses. In addition, the stratigraphically highest VHMS are hosted by rocks rich in tremolite, talc, chlorite and dolomite with lesser clinozoisite, which have high chlorite–carbonate–pyrite index and low–medium alteration index values, reflecting a greater importance of some chlorite-carbonate alteration at this stratigraphic level. Vectoring towards massive sulphide deposits in this area can be improved by combining the AI and CCPI indexes with calculated mass changes for key mobile elements. Of the ones modelled in this study, MgO and SiO2 appear to be the most useful.


3D model Lithogeochemistry VHMS deposits Mass change Kristineberg Skellefte district 



The project was undertaken by Luleå University of Technology with the support of Boliden Mines. We would like to express our appreciation to Pär Weihed, and Rodney Allen, who were instrumental in getting this collaboration underway. We thank the many geologists at Boliden who have, over the years, collected the drill core samples and lithogeochemical analyses, which formed an essential part of this study. We also thank the personnel at the Boliden core facility for retrieving from storage many historic drill holes for the new lithogeochemical sampling. Tim Barrett and Thomas Monecke provided thoughtful and comprehensive reviews, which considerably improved the quality of this manuscript. Additional thanks are due to Tim Barrett for his willingness to send helpful replies to queries sent him during all stages of this research project.

Supplementary material


(WMV 35.4 mb)


(WMV 36.6 mb)


(WMV 45.8 mb)


(WMV 42.0 mb)


(WMV 37.3 mb)


(WMV 50.7 mb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riia M. Chmielowski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nils Jansson
    • 2
  • Mac Fjellerad Persson
    • 2
  • Pia Fagerström
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Division of GeosciencesLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  2. 2.Boliden Mines, Exploration DepartmentProspekteringenBoliden

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