Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 132, Issue 8, pp 2439–2460 | Cite as

The genetics of resistance to lettuce drop (Sclerotinia spp.) in lettuce in a recombinant inbred line population from Reine des Glaces × Eruption

  • Bullo Erena Mamo
  • Ryan J. Hayes
  • Maria José Truco
  • Krishna D. Puri
  • Richard W. Michelmore
  • Krishna V. Subbarao
  • Ivan SimkoEmail author
Original Article


Key message

Two QTLs for resistance to lettuce drop, qLDR1.1 and qLDR5.1, were identified. Associated SNPs will be useful in breeding for lettuce drop and provide the foundation for future molecular analysis.


Lettuce drop, caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum, is an economically important disease of lettuce. The association of resistance to lettuce drop with the commercially undesirable trait of fast bolting has hindered the integration of host resistance in control of this disease. Eruption is a slow-bolting cultivar that exhibits a high level of resistance to lettuce drop. Eruption also is completely resistant to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 of Verticillium dahliae. A recombinant inbred line population from the cross Reine des Glaces × Eruption was genotyped by sequencing and evaluated for lettuce drop and bolting in separate fields infested with either S. minor or V. dahliae. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lettuce drop resistance were consistently detected in at least two experiments, and two other QTLs were identified in another experiment; the alleles for resistance at all four QTLs originated from Eruption. A QTL for lettuce drop resistance on linkage group (LG) 5, qLDR5.1, was consistently detected in all experiments and explained 11 to 25% of phenotypic variation. On LG1, qLDR1.1 was detected in two experiments explaining 9 to 12% of the phenotypic variation. Three out of four resistance QTLs are distinct from QTLs for bolting; qLDR5.1 is pleiotropic or closely linked with a QTL for early bolting; however, the rate of bolting shows only a small effect on the variance in resistance observed at this locus. The SNP markers linked with these QTLs will be useful in breeding for resistance through marker-assisted selection.



We thank Rosa Marchebout, Lorraine Landeros, Jose Orozco, and Rebecca Zhao for assistance in various phases of this research. This research was supported by the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service through Grant 15-SCBGP-CA-0046. Funding by the California Leafy Greens Research Board also partly supported this work. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USDA. The mentioning of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA.

Author contribution statement

RJH and KVS conceived the lettuce drop study and obtained funding; RJH generated the population; BEM carried out experiments (phenotyping, mapping, data analyses) and drafted the paper; MJT carried out genotyping and marker identification; KDP conducted genotyping of the Vr1 locus; RWM contributed to data interpretation; RJH, KVS, and IS contributed to phenotyping and data analyses. All authors contributed to writing the paper and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors state that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The experiments comply with the laws of the USA, the country in which the study was performed, and the ethical standards of the respective university and employers of the authors.

Supplementary material

122_2019_3365_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (52 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 52 kb)
122_2019_3365_MOESM2_ESM.docx (141 kb)
Supplementary materials 2 to 4 (DOCX 141 kb)


  1. Abawi GS, Robinson RW, Cobb AC, Shail JW (1980) Reaction of lettuce germplasm to artificial inoculation with Sclerotinia minor under greenhouse conditions. Plant Dis 64:668–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bradbury PJ, Zhang Z, Kroon DE, Casstevens TM, Ramdoss Y, Buckler ES (2007) TASSEL: software for association mapping of complex traits in diverse samples. Bioinformatics 23:2633–2635. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradshaw JE, Pande B, Bryan GJ, Hackett CA, McLean K, Stewart HE, Waugh R (2004) Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci for resistance to late blight [Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary], height and maturity in a tetraploid population of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). Genetics 168(2):983–995. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Broman KW, Wu H, Sen S, Churchill GA (2003) R/qtl: QTL mapping in experimental crosses. Bioinformatics 19(7):889–890. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunetti C, Ferdinando MD, Fini A, Pollastri S, Tattini M (2013) Flavonoids as antioxidants and developmental regulators: relative significance in plants and humans. Int J Mol Sci 14(2):3540–3555. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke JM, Tang S, Knapp SJ, Rieseberg LH (2002) Genetic analysis of sunflower domestication. Genetics 161(3):1257–1267Google Scholar
  7. Castaño F, Vear F, Tourvieille D (2001) The genetics of resistance in sunflower capitula to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum measured by mycelium infections combined with ascospores tests. Euphytica 122:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cessna SG, Sears VE, Dickman MB, Low PS (2000) Oxalic acid, a pathogenicity factor for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, suppresses the oxidative burst of the host plant. Plant Cell 12:2191–2199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen X, Pizzatti C, Bonaldi M, Saracchi M, Erlacher A, Kunova A, Berg G, Cortesi P (2016) Biological control of lettuce drop and host plant colonization by rhizospheric and endophytic streptomycetes. Front Microbiol 7:714. Google Scholar
  10. Chitrampalam P, Figuli PJ, Matheron ME, Subbarao KV, Pryor BM (2008) Biocontrol of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor in desert agroecosystems. Plant Dis 92(12):1625–1634. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chupp C, Sherf AF (1960) Vegetable diseases and their control. Ronald Press, New York p, p 742Google Scholar
  12. Churchill GA, Doerge RW (1994) Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics 138(3):963–971Google Scholar
  13. Damerum A, Selmes SL, Biggi GF, Clarkson GJ, Rothwell SD, Truco MJ, Michelmore RW, Hancock RD, Shellcock C, Chapman MA, Taylor G (2015) Elucidating the genetic basis of antioxidant status in lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Hortic Res 2:15055. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Durst CE (1915) Studies in lettuce breeding. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 12:96–98Google Scholar
  15. Elia M, Piglionica V (1964) Preliminary observations on the resistance of some lettuce cultivars to “collar rot” caused by Sclerotinia spp. Phytopathol Medit 3:37–39Google Scholar
  16. Elshire RJ, Glaubitz JC, Sun Q, Poland JA, Kawamoto K, Buckler ES, Mitchell SE (2011) A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for high diversity species. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fehr W (1991) Principles of cultivar development, vol 1. Theory and technique, vol 1. Walter R Fehr, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. Fisher MC, Hawkins NJ, Sanglard D, Gurr SJ (2018) Worldwide emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs challenges human health and food security. Science 360(6390):739–742. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fuller PA, Coyne DP, Steadman JR (1984) Inheritance of resistance to white mold disease in a diallel cross of dry beans. Crop Sci 24:929–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grube RC (2004) Genetic analysis of resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor. Acta Horticulturae 637:49–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grube R, Aburomia A (2004) Relationship between plant morphological traits and resistance to Sclerotinia minor in lettuce. (Abstr.). HortScience 39(4):881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grube R, Ryder E (2004) Identification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) germplasm with genetic resistance to drop caused by Sclerotinia minor. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129(1):70–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haley CS, Knott SA (1992) A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers. Heredity 69(4):315–324. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hao JJ, Subbarao KV (2005) Comparative analyses of lettuce drop epidemics caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Plant Dis 89(7):717–725. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hao J, Subbarao KV, Koike ST (2003) Effects of broccoli rotation on lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and on the population density of sclerotia in soil. Plant Dis 87(2):159–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hayashi E, You Y, Lewis R, Calderon MC, Wan G, Still DW (2012) Mapping QTL, epistasis and genotype × environment interaction of antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content and head formation in domesticated lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Theor Appl Genet 124(8):1487–1502. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hayes RJ (2017) Introduction. pp. 1–9. In: Subbarao KV, Davis RM, Gilbertson RL, Raid RN (eds) Compendium of lettuce diseases. The disease compendium series, 2nd edn. The American Phytopathological, Society, St. Paul, p 658Google Scholar
  28. Hayes RJ, Vallad GE, Qin Q-M, Grube RC, Subbarao KV (2007) Variation for resistance to Verticillium wilt in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Plant Dis 91(4):439–445. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hayes RJ, Wu BM, Pryor BM, Chitrampalam P, Subbarao KV (2010) Assessment of resistance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to mycelial and ascospore infection by Sclerotinia minor Jagger and S. sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. HortScience 45(3):333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayes RJ, McHale LK, Vallad GE, Truco MJ, Michelmore RW, Klosterman SJ, Maruthachalam K, Subbarao KV (2011a) The inheritance of resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in the lettuce cultivar La Brillante. Theor Appl Genet 123(4):509–517. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hayes RJ, Wu B, Subbarao KV (2011b) A single recessive gene conferring short leaves in romaine × latin type lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crosses, and its effect on plant morphology and resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger. Plant Breeding 130:388–393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hayes RJ, Trent MA, Truco MJ, Antonise R, Michelmore RW, Bull CT (2014) The inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf spot of lettuce caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in three lettuce cultivars. Hortic Res 1:14066. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Imolehin ED, Grogan RG, Duniway JM (1980) Effect of temperature and moisture tension on growth, sclerotial production, germination, and infection by Sclerotinia minor. Phytopathology 70(12):1153–1157. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Inderbitzin P, Subbarao K (2017) Verticillium wilt. In: Subbarao KV, Davis RM, Gilbertson RL, Raid RN (eds) Compendium of lettuce diseases. The disease compendium series, 2nd edn. The American Phytopathological, Society, St. Paul, p 658Google Scholar
  35. Inderbitzin P, Reyes-Chin-Wo S, Michelmore RW, Subbarao KV, Simko I (2018) A lettuce Verticillium dahliae race 1 resistance PCR assay based on genome sequencing of 60 resistant or susceptible cultivars. Phytopathology 108:S1.170–S1.171. Google Scholar
  36. Inderbitzin P, Christopoulou M, Lavelle D, Wo SR-C, Michelmore RW, Subbarao KV, Simko I (2019) The LsVe1L allele provides a molecular marker for resistance to Verticillium dahliae race 1 in lettuceGoogle Scholar
  37. Isnaini M, Keane PJ (2007) Biocontrol and epidemiology of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor at Bacchus Marsh, Victoria. Australas Plant Path 36(3):295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jeuken M, Lindhout P (2002) Lactuca saligna, a non-host for lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae), harbors a new race-specific Dm gene and three QTLs for resistance. Theor Appl Genet 105:384–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim HS, Diers BW (2000) Inheritance of partial resistance to sclerotinia stem rot in soybean. Crop Sci 40:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kosambi DD (1944) The estimation of map distances from recombination values. Ann Eugen 12(1):172–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kumar S, Pandey AK (2013) Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci World J. Google Scholar
  42. Lehner MS, Júnior TJP, Silva RA, Vieira RF, Carneiro JES, Schnabel G, Mizubuti ESG (2015) Fungicide sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: a thorough assessment using discriminatory dose, EC50, high-resolution melting analysis, and description of new point mutation associated with thiophanate-methyl resistance. Plant Dis 99(11):1537–1543. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lehner MS, Del Ponte EM, Gugino BK, Kikkert JR, Pethybridge SJ (2017) Sensitivity and efficacy of boscalid, fluazinam, and thiophanate-methyl for white mold control in snap bean in New York. Plant Dis 101(7):1253–1258. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li J, Zhao Z, Hayward A, Cheng H, Fu D (2015) Integration analysis of quantitative trait loci for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Brassica napus. Euphytica 205(2):483–489. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lithourgidis AS, Roupakias DG, Damalas CA (2005) Inheritance of resistance to sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia trifoliorum) in faba beans (Vicia faba L.). Field Crops Res 91:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lorenc-Kukuła K, Jafra S, Oszmiański J, Szopa J (2005) Ectopic expression of anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase in potato tuber causes increased resistance to bacteria. J Agric Food Chem 53(2):272–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Madjid A, Honm S, Lacy ML (1983) A greenhouse method for screening lettuce for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Scientia Hort 18:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Matheron ME, Matejka CJ (1989) In Vitro and field comparison of six new fungicides with iprodione and vinclozolin for control of leaf drop of lettuce caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Dis 73(9):727. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matheron ME, Porchas M (2004) Activity of boscalid, fenhexamid, fluazinam, fludioxonil, and vinclozolin on growth of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum and development of lettuce drop. Plant Dis 88(6):665–668. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McHale LK, Truco MJ, Kozik A, Wroblewski T, Ochoa OE, Lahre KA, Knapp SJ, Michelmore RW (2009) The genomic architecture of disease resistance in lettuce. Theor Appl Genet 118:565–580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morais CA, de Rosso VV, Estadella D, Pisani LP (2016) Anthocyanins as inflammatory modulators and the role of the gut microbiota. J Nutr Biochem 33:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Newton HC, Sequeira L (1972) Possible sources of resistance in lettuce to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Dis Rep 56:875–878Google Scholar
  53. Purdy LH (1979) Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: history, diseases and symptomatology, host range, geographic distribution, and impact. Phytopathology 69(8):875. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Qin XX, Zhang MY, Han YY, Hao JH, Liu CJ, Fan SX (2018) Beneficial phytochemicals with anti-tumor potential revealed through metabolic profiling of new red pigmented lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.). Int J Mol Sci 19(4):1165. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. R Core Team (2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Accessed 10 Nov 2017
  56. Reyes-Chin-Wo S, Wang Z, Yang X, Kozik A, Arikit S, Song C, Xia L, Froenicke L, Lavelle DO, Truco MJ, Xia R, Zhu S, Xu C, Xu H, Xu X, Cox K, Korf I, Meyers BC, Michelmore RW (2017) Genome assembly with in vitro proximity ligation data and whole-genome triplication in lettuce. Nat Commun 8:14953. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Robinson RW, McCreight JD, Ryder EJ (1983) The genes of lettuce and closely related species. Plant Breed Rev 1:267–293. Google Scholar
  58. Ryder EJ, Johnson AS (1974) Mist depollination of lettuce flowers. HortScience 9:584Google Scholar
  59. Saharan GS, Mehta N (2008) Sclerotinia diseases of crop plants: biology, ecology and disease management. Springer, Netherlands, p 486. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sandoya GV, Gurung S, Short DP, Subbarao KV, Michelmore RW, Hayes RJ (2017) Genetics of resistance in lettuce to races 1 and 2 of Verticillium dahliae from different host species. Euphytica 213(1):20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwartz HF, Otto K, Terán H, Lema M, Singh SP (2006) Inheritance of white mold resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris × P. coccineus crosses. Plant Dis 90(9):1167–1170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sherf AF, MacNab AA (1986) Vegetable diseases and their control, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, p p736. ISBN 978-0-471-05860-1Google Scholar
  63. Simko I, Piepho H-P (2012) The area under the disease progress stairs: calculation, advantage, and application. Phytopathology 102(4):381–389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Simko I, Atallah AJ, Ochoa OE, Antonise R, Galeano CH, Truco MJ, Michelmore RW (2013) Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce. Sci Rep 3:2875. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Simko I, Rauscher G, Sideman RG, McCreight JD, Hayes RJ (2014) Evaluation and QTL mapping of resistance to powdery mildew in lettuce. Plant Pathol 63:344–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Simko I, Ochoa OE, Pel MA, Tsuchida C, Font I Forcada C, Hayes RJ, Truco MJ, Antonise R, Galeano CH, Michelmore RW (2015) Resistance to downy mildew in lettuce cv. La Brillante is conferred by Dm50 gene and multiple QTLs. Phytopathology 105:1220–1228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Simko I, Hayes RJ, Furbank RT (2016) Non-destructive phenotyping of lettuce plants in early stages of development with optical sensors. Front Plant Sci 7:1985. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stevens FL, Hall JG (1911) A serious lettuce disease (sclerotiniose) and a method of control. NC Agric Exp Stn Tech Bull 8:85–145Google Scholar
  69. Subbarao KV (1998) Progress toward integrated management of lettuce drop. Plant Dis 82(10):1068–1078. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tao R, Su W, Liu W, Yu C, Yue Z, He S, Lavelle D, Zhang W, Zhang L, An G, Zhang Y, Hu Q, Larkin RM, Michelmore RW, Chen J, Kuang H (2019) Characterization of five polymorphic genes controlling red leaf color in lettuce provides evidence for disruptive selection since domesticationGoogle Scholar
  71. Thompson RC (1943) Inheritance of seed color in Lactuca sativa. J Agric Res 6(12):441–446Google Scholar
  72. Truco MJ, Ashrafi H, Kozik A, van Leeuwen H, Bowers J, Wo SR, Stoffel K, Xu H, Hill T, Van Deynze A, Michelmore RW (2013) An ultra-high-density, transcript-based, genetic map of lettuce. G3 (Bethesda, MD) 3(4):617–631. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Underwood W (2012) The plant cell wall: a dynamic barrier against pathogen invasion. Front Plant Sci 3:85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Visker MH, Keizer LC, Van Eck HJ, Jacobsen E, Colon LT, Struik PC (2003) Can the QTL for late blight resistance on potato chromosome 5 be attributed to foliage maturity type? Theor Appl Gen 106:317–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Voorrips RE (2002) MapChart: software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps and QTLs. J Hered 93(1):77–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Waycott W, Fort SB, Ryder EJ, Michelmore RW (1999) Mapping morphological genes relative to molecular markers in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Heredity 82:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wehner TC (2002) Vegetable cultivar descriptions for North America, list 26. HortScience 37(1):15–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Whipps JM, Budge SP, McClement S, Pink DAC (2002) A glasshouse cropping method for screening lettuce lines for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Eur J Plant Pathol 108:373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Winkel-Shirley B (2002) Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5(3):218–223. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wisser RJ, Kolkman JM, Patzoldt ME, Holland JB, Yu J, Krakowsky M, Nelsonb RJ, Balint-Kurti PJ (2011) Multivariate analysis of maize disease resistances suggests a pleiotropic genetic basis and implicates a GST gene. PNAS USA 108:7339–7344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wu Y, Bhat PR, Close TJ, Lonardi S (2008) Efficient and accurate construction of genetic linkage maps from the minimum spanning tree of a graph. PLoS Genet 4(10):e1000212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wu J, Zhao Q, Liu S, Shahid M, Lan L, Cai G, Zhang C, Fan C, Wang Y, Zhou Y (2016) Genome-wide association study identifies new loci for resistance to sclerotinia stem rot in Brassica napus. Front Plant Sci 7:1418. Google Scholar
  83. Zeng ZB (1994) Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci. Genetics 136(4):1457–1468Google Scholar
  84. Zhang Y, Butelli E, De Stefano R, Schoonbeek HJ, Magusin A, Pagliarani C, Wellner N, Hill L, Orzaez D, Granell A, Jones JD, Martin C (2013) Anthocyanins double the shelf life of tomatoes by delaying overripening and reducing susceptibility to gray mold. Curr Biol 23(12):1094–1100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhang L, Su W, Tao R, Zhang W, Chen J, Wu P, Yan C, Jia Y, Larkin RM, Lavelle D, Truco M-J, Chin-Wo SR, Michelmore RW, Kuang H (2017) RNA sequencing provides insights into the evolution of lettuce and the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Nat Commun 8:2264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhao X, Han Y, Li Y, Liu D, Sun M, Zhao Y, Lv C, Li D, Yang Z, Huang L, Teng W, Qiu L, Zheng H, Li W (2015) Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) via association and linkage maps. Plant J 82(2):245–255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhou F, Zhang X-L, Li J-L, Zhu F-X (2014) Dimethachlon resistance in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in China. Plant Dis 98(9):1221–1226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of California, DavisSalinasUSA
  2. 2.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceCrop Improvement and Protection Research UnitSalinasUSA
  3. 3.UC Davis Genome CenterDavisUSA
  4. 4.Departments of Plant Sciences, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  5. 5.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceForage Seed and Cereal Research UnitCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations