Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 132, Issue 4, pp 851–870 | Cite as

Advances in understanding salt tolerance in rice

  • Showkat Ahmad Ganie
  • Kutubuddin Ali Molla
  • Robert J. Henry
  • K. V. Bhat
  • Tapan Kumar MondalEmail author
Review Article


Key message

This review presents a comprehensive overview of the recent research on rice salt tolerance in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemical genomics.


Salinity is one of the major constraints in rice cultivation globally. Traditionally, rice is a glycophyte except for a few genotypes that have been widely used in salinity tolerance breeding of rice. Both seedling and reproductive stages of rice are considered to be the salt-susceptible stages; however, research efforts have been biased towards improving the understanding of seedling-stage salt tolerance. An extensive literature survey indicated that there have been very few attempts to develop reproductive stage-specific salt tolerance in rice probably due to the lack of salt-tolerant phenotypes at the reproductive stage. Recently, the role of DNA methylation, genome duplication and codon usage bias in salinity tolerance of rice have been studied. Furthermore, the study of exogenous salt stress alleviants in rice has opened up another potential avenue for understanding and improving its salt tolerance. There is a need to not only generate additional genomic resources in the form of salt-responsive QTLs and molecular markers and to characterize the genes and their upstream regulatory regions, but also to use them to gain deep insights into the mechanisms useful for developing tolerant varieties. We analysed the genomic locations of diverse salt-responsive genomic resources and found that rice chromosomes 1–6 possess the majority of these salinity-responsive genomic resources. The review presents a comprehensive overview of the recent research on rice salt tolerance in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemical genomics, which should help in understanding the molecular basis of salinity tolerance and its more effective improvement in rice.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Showkat Ahmad Ganie
    • 1
  • Kutubuddin Ali Molla
    • 1
  • Robert J. Henry
    • 2
  • K. V. Bhat
    • 1
  • Tapan Kumar Mondal
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic ResourcesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  3. 3.ICAR-National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, IARINew DelhiIndia

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