Introgression reshapes recombination distribution in grapevine interspecific hybrids
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In grapevine interspecific hybrids, meiotic recombination is suppressed in homeologous regions and enhanced in homologous regions of recombined chromosomes, whereas crossover rate remains unchanged when chromosome pairs are entirely homeologous.
Vitis rotundifolia, an American species related to the cultivated European grapevine Vitis vinifera, has a high level of resistance to several grapevine major diseases and is consequently a valuable resource for grape breeding. However, crosses between both species most often lead to very few poorly fertile hybrids. In this context, identifying genetic and genomic features that make cross-breeding between both species difficult is essential. To this end, three mapping populations were generated by pseudo-backcrosses using V. rotundifolia as the donor parent and several V. vinifera cultivars as the recurrent parents. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to establish high-density genetic linkage maps and to determine the genetic composition of the chromosomes of each individual. A good collinearity of the SNP positions was observed between parental maps, confirming the synteny between both species, except on lower arm of chromosome 7. Interestingly, recombination rate in V. rotundifolia × V. vinifera interspecific hybrids depends on the length of the introgressed region. It is similar to grapevine for chromosome pairs entirely homeologous. Conversely, for chromosome pairs partly homeologous, recombination is suppressed in the homeologous regions, whereas it is enhanced in the homologous ones. This balance leads to the conservation of the total genetic length of each chromosome between V. vinifera and hybrid maps, whatever the backcross level and the proportion of homeologous region. Altogether, these results provide new insight to optimize the use of V. rotundifolia in grape breeding and, more generally, to improve the introgression of gene of interest from wild species related to crops.
We gratefully acknowledge the Fondation Jean Poupelain for funding our work through the HealthyGrape2 program. This work was also partially funded by the French “Agence Nationale de la Recherche” (ANR-08-GENM-007). We are grateful to E. Duchêne for useful discussions on R scripts. We thank V. Dumas and J. Misbach for excellent assistance in plant maintenance and growing.
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Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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