Plant genetic resources are important sources of genetic variation for improving crop varieties as breeding materials. Conservation of such resources of allogamous species requires maintenance of the genetic diversity within each accession to avoid inbreeding depression and loss of rare alleles. For assessment of genetic diversity in the self-incompatibility locus (S locus), which is critically involved in the chance of mating, we developed a dot-blot genotyping method for self-incompatibility (S) haplotypes and applied it to indigenous, miscellaneous landraces of Brassica rapa, provided by the IPK Gene Bank (Gatersleben, Germany) and the Tohoku University Brassica Seed Bank (Sendai, Japan), in which landraces are maintained using different population sizes. This method effectively determined S genotypes of more than 500 individuals from the focal landraces. Although our results suggest that these landraces might possess sufficient numbers of S haplotypes, the strong reduction of frequencies of recessive S haplotypes occurred, probably owing to genetic drift. Based on these results, we herein discuss an appropriate way to conserve genetic diversity of allogamous plant resources in a gene bank.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bateman AJ (1952) Self-incompatibility systems in angiosperms. I. Theory. Heredity 6:285–310
Billiard S, Castric V, Vekemans X (2007) A general model to explore complex dominance patterns in plant sporophytic self-incompatibility systems. Genetics 175:1351–1369
Charlesworth D, Bartolomé C, Schierup MH, Mable BK (2003) Haplotype structure of the stigmatic self-incompatibility gene in natural populations of Arabidopsis lyrata. Mol Biol Evol 20:1741–1753
Escaravage N, Questiau S, Pornon A, Doche B, Taberlet P (1998) Clonal diversity in a Rhododendron ferrugineum L. (Ericaceae) population inferred from AFLP markers. Mol Ecol 7:975–982
Fujimoto R, Nishio T (2003) Identification of S haplotypes in Brassica by dot-blot analysis of SP11 alleles. Theor Appl Genet 106:1433–1437
Glémin S, Gaude T, Guillemin ML, Lourmas M, Olivieri I, Mignot A (2005) Balancing selection in the wild: testing population genetics theory of self-incompatibility in the rare species Brassica insularis. Genetics 171:279–289
Hatakeyama K, Watanabe M, Takasaki T, Ojima K, Hinata K (1998) Dominance relationships between S-alleles in self-incompatible Brassica campestris L. Heredity 80:241–247
Hatakeyama K, Takasaki T, Suzuki G, Nishio T, Watanabe M, Isogai A et al (2001) The S receptor kinase gene determines dominance relationships in stigma expression of self-incompatibility in Brassica. Plant J 26:69–76
Kakizaki T, Takada Y, Ito A, Suzuki G, Shiba H, Takayama S et al (2003) Linear dominance relationship among four class-II S haplotypes in pollen is determined by the expression of SP11 in Brassica self-incompatibility. Plant Cell Physiol 44:70–75
Kimura R, Sato K, Fujimoto R, Nishio T (2002) Recognition specificity of self-incompatibility maintained after the divergence of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Plant J 29:215–223
Kitashiba H, Zhang SL, Wu J, Shirasawa K, Nishio T (2008) S genotyping and S screening utilizing SFB gene polymorphism in Japanese plum and sweet cherry by dot-blot analysis. Mol Breed 21:339–349
Kusaba M, Matsushita M, Okazaki K, Satta Y, Nishio T (2000) Sequence and structural diversity of the S locus genes from different lines with the same self-recognition specificities in Brassica oleracea. Genetics 154:413–420
Mable BK, Schierup MH, Charlesworth D (2003) Estimating the number, frequency, and dominance of S-alleles in a natural population of Arabidopsis lyrata (Brassicaceae) with sporophytic control of self-incompatibility. Heredity 90:422–431
Nakanishi T, Hinata K (1973) An effective time for CO2 gas treatment for overcoming self-incompatibility in Brassica. Plant Cell Physiol 14:873–879
Nasrallah JB, Nishio T, Nasrallah ME (1991) The self-incompatibility genes of Brassica: expression and use in genetic ablation of floral tissue. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:393–422
Nishio T, Sakamoto K, Yamaguchi J (1994) PCR-RFLP of S locus for identification of breeding lines in cruciferous vegetables. Plant Cell Rep 13:546–550
Nishio T, Kusaba M, Watanabe M, Hinata K (1996) Registration of S alleles in Brassica campestris L by the restriction fragment sizes of SLGs. Theor Appl Genet 92:388–394
Nishio T, Izumida A, Hanzawa H, Sakamoto K (2006) Development of S tester lines of Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus as genetic resources. Acta Hort 706:141–144
Nou IS, Watanabe M, Isogai A, Hinata K (1993) Comparison of S-alleles and S-glycoproteins between two wild populations of Brassica campestris in Turkey and Japan. Sex Plant Reprod 6:79–86
Sakamoto K, Kusaba M, Nishio T (2000) Single seed PCR-RFLP analysis for identification of S haplotypes in commercial F1 hybrid cultivars of broccoli and cabbage. Plant Cell Rep 19:400–406
Sampson DR (1967) Frequency and distribution of self-incompatibility alleles in Raphanus raphanistrum. Genetics 56:241–251
Sampson DR (1974) Equilibrium frequencies of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles. Can J Genet Cytol 16:611–618
Sato K, Nishio T, Kimura R, Kusaba M, Suzuki T, Hatakeyama K et al (2002) Coevolution of the S-locus genes SRK, SLG and SP11/SCR in Brassica oleracea and B. rapa. Genetics 162:931–940
Sato Y, Sato K, Nishio T (2006) Interspecific pairs of class II S haplotypes having different recognition specificities between Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Plant Cell Physiol 47:340–345
Schierup MH, Vekemans X, Christiansen FB (1997) Evolutionary dynamics of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in plants. Genetics 147:835–846
Schierup MH, Bechsgaard JS, Nielsen LH, Christiansen FB (2006) Selection at work in self-incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata: mating patterns in a natural population. Genetics 172:477–484
Schopher CR, Nasrallah ME, Nasrallah JB (1999) The male determinant of self-incompatibility in Brassica. Science 286:1697–1700
Shiba H, Iwano M, Entani T, Ishimoto K, Shimosato H, Che FS et al (2002) The dominance of alleles controlling self-incompatibility in Brassica pollen is regulated at the RNA level. Plant Cell 14:491–504
Stein JC, Howlett B, Boyer DC, Nasrallah ME, Nasrallah JB (1991) Molecular cloning of a putative receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus of Brassica oleracea. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:8816–8820
Stevens JP, Kay QON (1989) The number, dominance relationships and frequencies of self-incompatibility alleles in a natural population of Sinapis arvensis L. in South Wales. Heredity 62:199–205
Suzuki G, Kai N, Hirose T, Fukui K, Nishio T et al (1999) Genomic organization of the S locus: identification and characterization of genes in SLG/SRK region of S 9 haplotype of Brassica campestris (syn. rapa). Genetics 153:391–400
Suzuki T, Kusaba M, Matsushita M, Okazaki K, Nishio T (2000) Characterization of Brassica S-haplotypes lacking S-locus glycoprotein. FEBS Lett 482:102–108
Takahata N (1990) A simple genealogical structure of strongly balanced allelic lines and trans-species evolution of polymorphism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:2419–2423
Takasaki T, Hatakeyama K, Suzuki G, Watanabe M, Isogai A et al (2000) The S receptor kinase determines self-incompatibility in Brassica stigma. Nature 403:913–916
Takuno S, Kawahara T, Ohnishi O (2007) Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated types of Brassica rapa L. em. Metzg. as revealed by AFLP analysis. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54:279–285
Uyenoyama MK (2000) Evolutionary dynamics of self-incompatibility alleles in Brassica. Genetics 156:351–359
Vekemans X, Schierup MH, Christiansen FB (1998) Mate availability and fecundity selection in multi-allelic self-incompatibility systems in plants. Evolution 52:19–29
Watanabe M, Ito A, Takada Y, Ninomiya C, Kakizaki T, Takahata Y et al (2000) Highly divergent sequences of the pollen self-incompatibility (S) gene in class-I S haplotypes of Brassica campestris (syn. rapa). L. FEBS Lett 473:139–144
Wright S (1939) The distribution of self-sterility alleles in populations. Genetics 24:538–555
We are grateful to the IPK, Gatersleben, Germany and Kaneko Seed Co. LTD., Maebashi, Japan for providing plant materials, Yutaka Sato, Ryo Fujimoto, Kenta Shirasawa, Shunsuke Okamoto, and Tetsu Sugimura for helpful advice, Sylvain Billiardand for allowing us to use her Mathematica notebook, and Ohmi Ohnishi, Taihachi Kawahara, and Yasuo Yasui for encouragement. This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (no. 19208001) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). S. T. is a recipient of a research fellowship from JSPS for Young Scientists.
Communicated by R. Visser.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Takuno, S., Oikawa, E., Kitashiba, H. et al. Assessment of genetic diversity of accessions in Brassicaceae genetic resources by frequency distribution analysis of S haplotypes. Theor Appl Genet 120, 1129–1138 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-009-1240-x
- Genetic Drift
- Dominance Relationship
- Neutral Locus
- Brassicaceae Species
- Allogamous Species