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Die Entwicklung virtueller Realität als Expositionsverfahren

  • Julia Diemer
  • Peter ZwanzgerEmail author
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Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Virtuelle Realität (VR) wird seit 20 Jahren als Expositionsverfahren in der Verhaltenstherapie von Angststörungen untersucht. Inzwischen liegen mehrere Metaanalysen mit überzeugenden Wirksamkeitsbelegen vor.

Fragestellung

In den letzten Jahren hat eine enorme Weiterentwicklung der VR-Technologie und der damit verbundenen Möglichkeiten stattgefunden, die weiterhin andauert. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird der aktuelle Stand von VR als Expositionsmethode dargestellt.

Material und Methoden

Wir bieten einen narrativen Überblick über aktuelle Forschung zu VR-Expositionstherapie bei Angststörungen und die wichtigsten Entwicklungen in diesem Bereich.

Ergebnisse

Nach einem anfangs fast ausschließlichen Fokus auf spezifische Phobien nimmt die Zahl der Arbeiten zu komplexeren Angststörungen (v. a. soziale Angststörung) zu. Zudem hat sich VR inzwischen als experimentelle Methode etabliert, um psychopathologische Prozesse zu erforschen und die Wirkmechanismen von (VR-)Exposition zu erhellen.

Diskussion

Nach wie vor besteht Forschungsbedarf zur VR-Expositionstherapie, v. a. bei komplexen Angststörungen (z. B. Panikstörung und Agoraphobie, soziale Phobie) und Traumafolgestörungen. Darüber hinaus hat sich VR als Forschungsmethode inzwischen etabliert. Die rasche technische Entwicklung im VR-Bereich lässt eine weitere Zunahme der Forschungsaktivitäten zu VR erwarten – sowohl in der klinischen als auch in der Grundlagenforschung.

Schlüsselwörter

Virtuelle Realität Expositionstherapie Angststörungen Therapieprozessforschung 

Development of virtual reality as an exposure technique

Abstract

Background

Virtual reality (VR) has been investigated as a medium for exposure therapy of anxiety disorders for 20 years. Various meta-analyses have provided convincing evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy in VR.

Objective

In recent years VR technology and its applications have considerably improved. Therefore, the current state of the art of VR exposure therapy is presented.

Material and methods

This article provides a narrative review of current research on VR exposure therapy for anxiety disorders and major directions of development in this area.

Results

After an almost exclusive focus on specific phobias in the early days, research on more complex anxiety disorders (particularly on social anxiety disorder) is increasing. In addition, VR has become established as an experimental method to probe psychopathological processes and to elucidate the mechanism of action of (VR) exposure therapy.

Conclusion

There is still a need for more research into VR exposure therapy, especially in complex anxiety disorders (e. g. panic disorder, agoraphobia and social anxiety disorder) and trauma-related disorders. Furthermore, VR has become established as a research tool. The rapid technological development gives reason to expect a continuing increase in VR research, in clinical as well as basic research.

Keywords

Virtual reality Exposure therapy Anxiety disorders Therapy process research 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

J. Diemer und P. Zwanzger geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

Supplementary material

115_2019_678_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (202 kb)
Zusätzliche Literaturliste zu randomisierten kontrollierten Wirksamkeitsstudien zu VRET bei Angst(störungen); 1995–2018

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.kbo-Inn-Salzach-KlinikumWasserburg am InnDeutschland
  2. 2.Department PsychologieLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchenDeutschland
  3. 3.Klinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchenDeutschland

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