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Peri- und postnatale Therapie traumatisierter, psychisch kranker Eltern: Wirkungen auf Eltern und ihre Kinder

  • Johanna Klinger-KönigEmail author
  • Hans J. Grabe
Leitthema
  • 16 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Schwangerschaft und die damit verbundenen Untersuchungen können bei traumatisierten, psychisch kranken Eltern zu emotionalem Schmerz und Flashbacks führen und die ohnehin angespannte emotionale Situation verstärken. Neben psychischen Belastungen bestehen oft Unsicherheiten im Umgang mit dem Kind und eine verringerte Sensitivität für das Kind. Die Kinder selbst haben später ein erhöhtes Risiko für Kindeswohlgefährdungen und die Entwicklung eigener psychischer Erkrankungen.

Fragestellung

Inwiefern geht die Interventionsforschung auf die speziellen Bedürfnisse traumatisierter, psychisch kranker Eltern ein? Welche Interventionsarten dominieren und welche Wirkungen haben diese für Eltern und Kinder?

Material und Methoden

Publikationen zu peri- und postnatalen Interventionen bei traumatisierten und psychisch kranken Eltern wurden in den Review eingeschlossen, wenn mindestens eine Intervention explizit beschrieben, auf eine Traumatisierung der Eltern eingegangen und die Wirkung der Intervention für die Eltern und Kinder dargestellt wurde.

Ergebnisse

Zwei Reviews und 10 Originalarbeiten wurden eingeschlossen. Die Interventionen basierten primär auf Erziehungsberatung, Psychoedukation, Einzel- und Gruppentherapien sowie der stationären Behandlung in Mutter-Kind-Kliniken. Die Artikel berichteten eine verringerte psychische Symptomatik, eine höhere Sensitivität für die kindlichen Bedürfnisse, eine höhere Fürsorgequalität und eine verbesserte Mutter-Kind-Bindung durch die Intervention.

Diskussion

Obwohl nur wenige Studien auf die besonderen Bedürfnisse traumatisierter, psychisch kranker Eltern fokussieren, weisen die beschriebenen Interventionen vielversprechende Effekte auf, insbesondere in Kombination mehrerer Interventionsarten. Bisher vernachlässigt ist eine adäquate Integration der Väter in die Therapien.

Schlüsselwörter

Kindheitstraumata Schwangerschaft Fürsorge Mutter-Kind-Bindung Interventionsforschung 

Perinatal and postnatal treatment of traumatized parents with mental disorders: impact on parents and their children

Abstract

Background

In traumatized parents with mental disorders, pregnancy and related medical examinations can lead to high emotional distress and flashbacks and increase the already tense emotional situation. Besides psychiatric burdens, parental insecurity concerning dealing with and reduced sensitivity for the child often exist. The children themselves have a higher risk of being neglected or abused and to also develop mental disorders.

Objective

How does interventional research take the special needs of traumatized parents with mental disorders into account? What kind of interventions predominate and what impact do they have on parents and children?

Material and methods

Publications on perinatal and postnatal interventions for traumatized and mentally disordered parents were included in the review if at least one intervention was explicitly described, a parental trauma was discussed and the impact of the intervention on the parents and children was analyzed.

Results

A total of 2 reviews and 10 interventional studies were included. Interventions were primarily based on professional educational counseling, psychoeducation, nurse home visits, individual and group therapies and inpatient mother-baby units. The interventions led to reduced psychiatric symptoms, enhanced parental sensitivity for the child’s needs, enhanced quality of nurturing and care and an improved mother-child bonding.

Conclusion

Although only few studies focused on the special needs of traumatized, mentally disordered parents, the described interventions show promising effect sizes, especially in combination with several kinds of interventions. Nevertheless, an adequate integration of fathers into the therapies has so far been neglected.

Keywords

Childhood trauma Pregnancy Nurturing Mother-child bonding Intervention research 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

J. Klinger-König und H.J. Grabe geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieUniversitätsmedizin GreifswaldGreifswaldDeutschland
  2. 2.Standort Rostock/GreifswaldDeutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative ErkrankungenGreifswaldDeutschland

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