Advertisement

European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 77, Issue 4, pp 661–671 | Cite as

Influence of the wood quality and treatment temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of thermally modified radiata pine

  • René Herrera-Díaz
  • Víctor Sepúlveda-Villarroel
  • José Torres-Mella
  • Linette Salvo-Sepúlveda
  • Rodrigo Llano-Ponte
  • Carlos Salinas-Lira
  • Miguel A. Peredo
  • Rubén A. AnaníasEmail author
Original
  • 101 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the effects of the wood quality used for thermal modification on the physical and mechanical properties obtained at two treatment temperatures commonly used at the industrial level were evaluated in order to validate experimentally the pilot scale process for its future industrial scaling. The quality of the input radiata pine refers to the presence of natural defects of wood, as well as the amount of juvenile wood. Selected thermally modified samples were used to measure some quality markers (physical, mechanical, optical) and to find their correlations due to quality or treatment, so as to obtain the best characteristics of the heat-treated products. The results indicated that the quality of the input wood was only relevant to the mild treatment (190 °C), finding an acceptable correlation between the weight loss and the quality used (first quality). After both treatments, the order of anisotropy was kept and the dimensional changes were significantly reduced; thus, the weight loss during treatment did not dramatically affect its anatomical structure. Clustering the data by statistical procedures was possible to observe that samples of lower quality were ordered according to the treatment temperature, indicating a strong influence of the treatment on the properties obtained. The mechanical properties revealed that up to 190 °C the chemical changes that occur on wood affected positively the values (MOE increased by about 15–32% and MOR slightly decreased < 5%). The thermal profile of the treated samples was comparable, suggesting that the dehydration reactions were more significant for the obtained properties than the chemical changes. Moreover, the browning effect was more stable in the samples treated at 210 °C after artificial weathering cycles, being a positive outcome that could extend the service life of the thermally modified products.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors appreciate the financial support of the National Commission of Scientific & Technological Research (Conicyt) of Chile (Fondequip EQM130812). The first author would like to thank the Basque Government, Postdoctoral program (POS-2018-1-0077) for financially supporting a part of this research.

References

  1. AENOR (2006) UNE-EN 14298:2006 Sawn timber. Assessment of drying quality. Official Spanish version of European Normative EN14298:2006. Spanish Association for Standardization AENOR, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  2. AENOR (2007) UNE-EN 14358:2007 Timber structures-Calculation of characteristic 5-percentile values and acceptance criteria for a sample. Official Spanish version of European Normative EN 14358:2007. Spanish Association for Standardization AENOR, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  3. AENOR (2012) UNE-EN 408:2011 + A1 Timber structures—structural timber and glued laminated timber—determination of some physical and mechanical properties. Official Spanish version of European Normative EN 408:2011 + A1. Spanish Association for Standardization AENOR, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold M (2010) Effect of moisture on the bending properties of thermally modified beech and spruce. J Mater Sci 45:669–680.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3984-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM (2009) ASTM D2244-09b Standard practice for calculation of color tolerances and color differences from instrumentally measured color coordinates. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, www.astm.org
  6. ASTM (2012) ASTM G154-12 Standard practice for operating fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) Lamp apparatus for exposure of nonmetallic materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, www.astm.org
  7. Ayadi N, Lejeune F, Charrier F, Charrier B, Merlin A (2003) Color stability of heat-treated wood during artificial weathering. Eur J Wood Prod 61:221–226.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-003-0389-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barcík Š, Gašparík M, Razumov E (2015) Effect of temperature on the color changes of wood during thermal modification. Cellul Chem Technol 49:789–798Google Scholar
  9. Belgacem MN, Pizzi A (2016) lignocellulosic fibers and wood handbook: renewable materials for today’s environment. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boonstra M (2008) A two-stage thermal modification of wood. Doctoral dissertation, Université Henri Poincaré-Nancy 1, France. Avalaible online: https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01748345/document
  11. Boonstra M (2016) Dimensional stabilization of wood and wood composites. Lignocellulosic fibers and wood handbook. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 629–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boonstra M, Van Acker J, Tjeerdsma B (2007a) Strength properties of thermally modified softwoods and its relation to polymeric structural wood constituents. Ann For Sci 64:679–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boonstra MJ, Van Acker J, Tjeerdsma BF, Kegel EV (2007b) Strength properties of thermally modified softwoods and its relation to polymeric structural wood constituents. Ann For Sci 64:679–690.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2007048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brischke C, Welzbacher CR, Brandt K, Rapp AO (2007) Quality control of thermally modified timber: interrelationship between heat treatment intensities and CIE L*a*b* color data on homogenized wood samples. Holzforschung 61:19–22.  https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2007.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brito JO, Silva FG, Leão MM, Almeida G (2008) Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment. Bioresour Technol 99:8545–8548.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.03.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bulian F, Graystone J (2009) Wood coatings theory and practice. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-444-52840-7.x0001-x Google Scholar
  17. Candelier K, Hannouz S, Elaieb M et al (2015) Utilization of temperature kinetics as a method to predict treatment intensity and corresponding treated wood quality: Durability and mechanical properties of thermally modified wood. Maderas Cienc y Tecnol.  https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-221x2015005000024 Google Scholar
  18. Candelier K, Thevenon MF, Petrissans A et al (2016) Control of wood thermal treatment and its effects on decay resistance: a review. Ann For Sci 73:571–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cerc Korošec R, Lavrič B, Rep G et al (2009) Thermogravimetry as a possible tool for determining modification degree of thermally treated Norway spruce wood. J Therm Anal Calorim 98:189–195.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-009-0374-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chittenden C, Singh T (2011) Antifungal activity of essential oils against wood degrading fungi and their applications as wood preservatives. Int Wood Prod J 2:44–48.  https://doi.org/10.1179/2042645311Y.0000000004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Esteves B, Carmo J, Nunes L (2014) Commercialisation and production of modified wood in Portugal. In: Nunes Lina (ed) European Conference on Wood Modification 2014. LisbonGoogle Scholar
  22. González-Peña MM, Curling SF, Hale MDC (2009) On the effect of heat on the chemical composition and dimensions of thermally-modified wood. Polym Degrad Stab 94:2184–2193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.POLYMDEGRADSTAB.2009.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grønli MG, Varhegyi G, Di Blasi C (2002) Thermogravimetric analysis and devolatilization kinetics of wood. Ind Eng Chem Res 41:4201–4208.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0201157C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hakkou M, Pétrissans M, Zoulalian A, Gérardin P (2005) Investigation of wood wettability changes during heat treatment on the basis of chemical analysis. Polym Degrad Stab 89:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.10.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hermoso E, Fernández-Golfín J, Conde M et al (2015) Caracterización de la madera aserrada de Pinus radiata modificada térmicamente (Characterization of thermally modified Pinus radiata timber). Maderas Cienc y Tecnol 17:5.  https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-221x2015005000044 Google Scholar
  26. Herrera R, Muszyńska M, Krystofiak T, Labidi J (2015) Comparative evaluation of different thermally modified wood samples finishing with UV-curable and waterborne coatings. Appl Surf Sci 357:1444–1453.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.09.259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Herrera R, Arrese A, de Hoyos-Martinez P, Labidi J (2018) Evolution of thermally modified wood properties exposed to natural and artificial weathering and its potential as an element for façades systems. Constr Build Mater 172:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Herrera-Díaz R, Sepúlveda-Villarroel V, Pérez-Peña N et al (2017) Effect of wood drying and heat modification on some physical and mechanical properties of radiata pine. Dry Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2017.1342094 Google Scholar
  29. Hon DN-S, Shiraishi N (2001) Color and discoloration. Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Dekker, South Carolina, pp 385–442Google Scholar
  30. INN (1988) Norma Chilena Oficial NCh 176/2 Madera—Parte 2: Determinación de la densidad. (Official Chilean Standard NCh 176/2 Wood—Part 2: Determination of density). National Institute of Normalization, INN, Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
  31. Kamdem DP, Pizzi A, Jermannaud A (2002) Durability of heat-treated wood. Holz Roh Werkst 60:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-001-0261-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kocaefe D, Younsi R, Poncsak S, Kocaefe Y (2007) Comparison of different models for the high-temperature heat-treatment of wood. Int J Therm Sci 46:707–716.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJTHERMALSCI.2006.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kocaefe D, Poncsak S, Boluk Y (2008) Effect of thermal treatment on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of birch and aspen. BioResources 3:517–537Google Scholar
  34. Kocaefe D, Huang X, Kocaefe Y, Boluk Y (2013) Quantitative characterization of chemical degradation of heat-treated wood surfaces during artificial weathering using XPS. Surf Interface Anal 45:639–649.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.5104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Korkut DS, Guller B (2008) The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood. Bioresour Technol 99:2846–2851.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.06.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kránitz K, Sonderegger W, Bues C-T, Niemz P (2016) Effects of aging on wood: a literature review. Wood Sci Technol 50:7–22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-015-0766-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laurichesse S, Avérous L (2014) Chemical modification of lignins: towards biobased polymers. Prog Polym Sci 39:1266–1290.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PROGPOLYMSCI.2013.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Metsä-Kortelainen S, Viitanen H (2012) Wettability of sapwood and heartwood of thermally modified Norway spruce and Scots pine. Eur J Wood Prod 70:135–139.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-011-0523-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Militz H (2008) Processes and properties of thermally modified wood manufactured in Europe. In: ACS Symposium Series. pp 372–388Google Scholar
  40. Militz H, Altgen M (2014) Processes and properties of thermally modified wood manufactured in Europe. In: Schultz TP, Goodell B, Nicholas DD (eds) Deterioration and protection of sustainable biomaterials. ACS Symposium Series, pp 269–285Google Scholar
  41. Niemz P, Hofmann T (2010) Thermally modified wood. Maderas Cienc y Tecnol 12:69–78.  https://doi.org/10.4067/SO718-221X2010000200002 Google Scholar
  42. Ormondroyd G, Spear M, Curling S (2015) Modified wood: review of efficacy and service life testing. Proc Inst Civ Eng 5:6.  https://doi.org/10.1680/coma.14.00072 Google Scholar
  43. Pang S (2002) Predicting anisotropic shringkage of softwood part 1: theories. Wood Sci Technol 36:75–91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-001-0122-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prins MJ, Ptasinski KJ, Janssen FJJG (2006) Torrefaction of wood. Part 2. Analysis of products. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 77:35–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2006.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rautkari L, Honkanen J, Hill CAS, Ridley-Ellis D, Hughes M (2014) Mechanical and physical properties of thermally modified Scots pine wood in high pressure reactor under saturated steam at 120, 150 and 180 °C. Eur J Wood Prod 72:33–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-013-0749-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rezayati Charani P, Mohammadi Rovshandeh J, Mohebby B, Ramezani O (2007) Influence of hydrothermal treatment on the dimensional stability of beech wood. Casp J Environ Sci 05:125–131Google Scholar
  47. Salinas C, Chavez C, Ananias RA, Elustondo D (2015) Unidimensional simulation of drying stress in radiata pine wood. Dry Technol 33:996–1005.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2015.1012767 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sandberg D, Kutnar A (2016) Thermal modified timber (tmt): recent development in Europe and North America. Wood Fiber Sci 48:28–39Google Scholar
  49. Shi JL, Kocaefe D, Zhang J (2007) Mechanical behaviour of Québec wood species heat-treated using Thermo Wood process. Holz Roh Werkst 65(4):255–259.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-007-0173-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tiryaki S, Hamzaçebi C (2014) Predicting modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of heat treated woods by artificial neural networks. Measurement 49:266–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MEASUREMENT.2013.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Willems W (2009) A novel economic large-scale production technology for high-quality thermally modified wood. European conference on wood modification. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, pp 31–35Google Scholar
  52. Willems W, Lykidis C, Altgen M, Clauder L (2015) Quality control methods for thermally modified wood: COST action FP0904 2010–2014: thermo-hydro-mechanical wood behaviour and processing. Holzforschung 69:875–884.  https://doi.org/10.1515/hf-2014-0185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Xing D, Li J (2014) Effects of heat treatment on thermal decomposition and combustion performance of Larix spp. wood. BioResources 9:4274–4287.  https://doi.org/10.15376/biores.9.3.4274-4287 Google Scholar
  54. Yildiz S, Gümüşkaya E (2007) The effects of thermal modification on crystalline structure of cellulose in soft and hardwood. Build Environ 42:62–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yildiz S, Tomak ED, Yildiz UC, Ustaomer D (2013) Effect of artificial weathering on the properties of heat treated wood. Polym Degrad Stab 98:1419–1427.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2013.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Younsi R, Kocaefe D, Poncsak S, Kocaefe Y (2010) Computational and experimental analysis of high temperature thermal treatment of wood based on thermo wood technology. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 37:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • René Herrera-Díaz
    • 1
  • Víctor Sepúlveda-Villarroel
    • 2
  • José Torres-Mella
    • 2
  • Linette Salvo-Sepúlveda
    • 2
  • Rodrigo Llano-Ponte
    • 1
  • Carlos Salinas-Lira
    • 3
  • Miguel A. Peredo
    • 4
  • Rubén A. Ananías
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical and Environmental Engineering DepartmentUniversity of the Basque Country UPV/EHUSan SebastianSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Ingeniería en Maderas, Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad del Bío-BíoConcepciónChile
  3. 3.Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad del Bío-BíoConcepciónChile
  4. 4.Private-ConsultantConcepciónChile

Personalised recommendations