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European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 421–437 | Cite as

Bending performance of nail-laminated timber constructed of fast-grown plantation eucalypt

  • Mohammad DerikvandEmail author
  • Hui Jiao
  • Nathan Kotlarewski
  • Michael Lee
  • Andrew Chan
  • Gregory Nolan
Original

Abstract

Australia’s hardwood plantation estate is predominantly comprised of Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus, which are mainly being managed to produce woodchips—a low-value commodity export. There is an increasing interest by the timber industry in developing higher-value structural products from the low-grade timber recovered from these plantation resources. In this experimental study, for the first time, the bending performance of nail-laminated timber (NLT) and NLT-concrete composite (NLTC) floor panels constructed of the low-grade, fibre-managed Eucalyptus nitens and Eucalyptus globulus timber was evaluated. The test panels were constructed with various span lengths and cross-sectional configurations and subjected to vibration and four-point bending tests. The results indicated that the modulus of elasticity of the Eucalyptus nitens NLT panels (11,074.6 MPa) was comparable to that of NLT panels made of Eucalyptus globulus (11,203.2 MPa). The modulus of rupture of the Eucalyptus globulus panels was 13.8% higher than that of the Eucalyptus nitens ones. The bending properties of the NLT panels constructed of the two plantation species were superior to those of some commercially important mass laminated timber products reported in the literature. Under the limit state design loads, all the NLT and NLTC panels were still in the linear-elastic range. The fundamental natural vibration frequency values of the test panels were above the recommended minimum range of 8–10 Hz for residential and office floors. The two plantation timber species therefore demonstrated sufficient short-term bending performances to be used in the construction of higher-value structural floor products.

Abbreviations

BMC

Bending moment capacity

CLT

Cross-laminated timber

GLT

Glue-laminated timber

LCC

Load-carrying capacity

LSD

Limit state design

ULS

Ultimate limit state

SLS

Serviceability limit state

MOE

Modulus of elasticity

MOR

Modulus of rupture

NLT

Nail-laminated timber

NLTC

Nail-laminated timber-concrete

NLTC#1

Nail-laminated timber-concrete type one

NLTC#2

Nail-laminated timber-concrete type two

NLTC#3

Nail-laminated timber-concrete type three

List of symbols

a

One-third of span length

b

Breadth

d

Depth

D

Weight of panels

EIeff,0

Effective stiffness of panels with no composite action

EIeff,1

Effective stiffness of panels with full composite action

EIeff, em

Empirical effective flexural stiffness

EIeff, Ser

Empirical effective flexural stiffness at SLS load

G1

Permanent load from the self-weight

G2

Superimposed permanent load

GT

Total permanent load

I

The second moment of area

L

Span length

Lp

Panel length

M

Actual bending moment

MULS

Design bending moment

Ø

Diameter

\(\in\)

Composite efficiency of connections

P

Maximum applied load

P1

10% of maximum applied load

P2

40% of maximum applied load

PG

Analytical uniformly distributed load at SLS

PS

Experimental imposed load

PSu

Experimental uniformly distributed load at SLS

Qo

Design imposed load for office buildings

QR

Design imposed load for residential buildings

SLC

Specific load-carrying capacity

WULS

Combination of permanent and imposed loads

δSLS

Serviceability deflection limit

φ1

Deflection at P1

φ2

Deflection at P2

φs

Maximum deflection at Ps

Notes

Funding

This study was undertaken under the Australian Research Council, Centre for Forest Value, University of Tasmania, TAS, Australia (Grant Reference: IC150100004). The support from Forest and Wood Products Australia Limited (FWPA), Melbourne, VIC, Australia is acknowledged (Grant Number: PNB387-1516). The authors are also grateful of the support from Forico Pty Ltd. in providing the logs and Britton Timbers for the milling of the logs and drying and finishing of the boards.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Australian Research Council, Centre for Forest ValueUniversity of TasmaniaLauncestonAustralia
  2. 2.School of Engineering, AMC, College of Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Sustainable Architecture With Wood (CSAW)University of TasmaniaLauncestonAustralia

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