Der Anaesthesist

, Volume 67, Issue 4, pp 305–320 | Cite as

Sichere und kontroverse Komponenten der „rapid sequence induction“

CME
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Zusammenfassung

Die „rapid sequence induction“ (RSI) ist eine Technik der Narkoseeinleitung bei erhöhtem Risiko für eine pulmonale Aspiration. Zwar ist die Inzidenz des akuten Lungenversagens (ARDS) nach Aspiration extrem selten, dennoch ist das ARDS für 10–30 % der anästhesiebedingten Todesfälle verantwortlich. Die vor fast 50 Jahren erstbeschriebene klassische RSI (Oberkörperhochlagerung, Verzicht auf Zwischenbeatmung und Verwendung von Succinylcholin) wird heute noch so angewendet. Modifizierte RSI beinhalten Maskenbeatmung vor endotrachealer Intubation bzw. Verwendung nichtdepolarisierender Muskelrelaxanzien. Für vergleichbare Intubationsbedingungen sollten 1,0 mg/kgKG Succinylcholin oder 1,0–1,2 mg/kgKG Rocuronium gegeben werden. Effektivität und korrekte Durchführung des Krikoiddrucks, der nach seiner Einführung 1961 bald ein Eckpfeiler der RSI war, werden seit einiger Zeit kontrovers diskutiert. Bei Ileus und Passage‑/Entleerungsstörung ist vor Narkoseeinleitung die Magenentleerung mithilfe einer Sonde zwingend.

Schlüsselwörter

Ileus Rocuronium Succinylcholin Krikoiddruck Atemwegsmanagement 

Certain and controversial components of “rapid sequence induction”

Abstract

Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is a specific technique for anesthesia induction, which is performed in patients with an increased risk for pulmonary aspiration (e.g. intestinal obstruction, severe injuries and cesarean section). The incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very low but 10–30% of anesthesia-related deaths are caused by the consequences of ARDS. The classical RSI with its main components (i.e. head-up position, avoidance of positive pressure ventilation and administration of succinylcholine) was published nearly 50 years ago and has remained almost unchanged. The modified RSI consists of mask ventilation before endotracheal intubation is performed or the use of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. Succinylcholine 1.0 mg/kg or rocuronium 1.0–1.2 mg/kg should be administered to achieve excellent intubation conditions. The use of cricoid pressure was a cornerstone of RSI after its introduction in 1961; however, after controversial discussions in recent years, cricoid pressure has lost its importance. Before surgery gastric emptying with a nasogastric tube is mandatory in patients with ileus and passage or defecation disorders.

Keywords

Ileus Rocuronium Succinylcholine Cricoid pressure Airway management 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

T. Mencke, A. Zitzmann und D.A. Reuter geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie und IntensivtherapieUniversitätsmedizin RostockRostockDeutschland

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