Phenylpropanoid sex pheromone component in hemolymph of male Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
- 46 Downloads
Males of the Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to, and feed on methyl eugenol (ME) that exists as a plant secondary compound in over 480 plant species worldwide. Upon feeding on this highly potent attractant, the males convert ME into a phenylpropanoid, (E)-coniferyl alcohol (ECF), that is stored in the rectal gland prior to its release as a sex pheromone component during calling and courtship. Here, using a series of chemical and behavioural assays, we provide evidence for the presence of ECF in the hemolymph and suggest the latter’s involvement in transport of ECF to the male rectal gland following consumption of ME. The greatest concentration of ECF was detected in the hemolymph at 3 h after feeding on ME and subsequently decreased, whereas accumulation of ECF in the rectal gland reached a maximum at 2 days post-feeding. Using male flies as biodetectors, fractions of 1.5–9.2 kDa from fractionated hemolymph of ME-fed males were found to be attractive and contained ECF as sex pheromone. In addition, the significant increase in the total concentration of protein in hemolymph from ME-fed males compared with that of ME-deprived males suggests a direct protein carrier involvement in hemolymph transport of the sex pheromone in B. carambolae. All these results are further discussed in comparison with previous results obtained from its sibling species, the Oriental fruit fly—B. dorsalis.
KeywordsBactrocera carambolae Methyl eugenol (E)-coniferyl alcohol Hemolymph Rectal gland Sex pheromone
Carambola fruit fly
Oriental fruit fly
Male annihilation technique
Sterile insect technique
Days after emergence
This research was funded by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS No.: 01-11-09-715FR). We also thank Dr R. Nishida, Professor Emeritus in Kyoto University for providing us (E)-coniferyl alcohol.
AKWH and KHT conceived and designed the methodology; WWH collected the data; WWH, SLW, AKWH and KHT analyzed the data; WWH and AKWH led the writing of the manuscript. All authors contributed critically to the drafts and approved the final draft for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Drew RAI, Hameck EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad JC, Jipanin M, Konkrong C, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S (1999) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South East Asia. Raffles B Zool 7:1–92Google Scholar
- Drew RAI, Romig MC (1997) Overview–Tephritidae in the Pacific and South-East Asia. In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI (eds) Management of fruit flies in the pacific. A regional symposium, ACIAR proceedings, vol 76, pp 46–53Google Scholar
- Lim CL, Tan ST, Tan KH (1998) Enzymatic assay of a mixed-function monooxygenase in Bactrocera papayae. In: Fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance, Penang, Malaysia, 1–5 June, 1998, p 139Google Scholar
- Nishida R, Tan KH, Fukami H (1988b) Cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol from the rectal glands of male Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis. Chem Express 3:207–210Google Scholar
- San Jose M, Doorenweerd C, Leblanc L, Barr N, Geib S, Rubinoff D (2018) Tracking the origins of fly invasions; using mitochondrial haplotype diversity to identify potential source populations in two genetically intertwined fruit fly species (Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis [Diptera: Tephritidae]). J Econ Entomol. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy272 Google Scholar
- Schutze MK, Aketarawong N, Amornsak W, Armstrong KF, Augustinos A, Barr N, Bo W, Bourtzis K, Boykin LM, Ca´ceres C, Cameron SL, Chapman TA, Chinvinijkul S, Chomicˇ A, De Meyer M, Drosopoulou ED, Englezou A, Ekesi S, Gariou-Papalexiou A, Hailstones D, Haymer D, Hee AKW, Hendrichs J, Hasanuzzaman M, Jessup A, Khamis FM, Krosch MN, Leblanc L, Mahmood K, Malacrida AR, Mavragani-Tsipidou P, McInnis DO, Mwatawala M, Nishida R, Ono H, Reyes J, Rubinoff DR, San Jose M, Shelly TE, Srikachar S, Tan KH, Thanaphum S, Ul Haq I, Vijaysegaran S, Wee SL, Yesmin F, Zacharopoulou A, Clarke AR (2015) Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on 20 years of integrative morphological, genetic, behavioural, and chemoecological data. Syst Entomol 40:456–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tan KH (1985) Estimation of native populations of male Dacus spp. by using Jolly’s stochastic method using a new designed attractant trap in a village ecosystem. J Plant Prot Trop 2:87–95Google Scholar
- Tan KH, Nishida R (1996) Sex pheromone and mating competition after methyl eugenol consumption in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex. In: McPheron B, Steck GJ (eds) Fruit fly pest. Lucie Press, Florida, pp 147–153Google Scholar
- Tan KH, Nishida R, Jang EB, Shelly TE (2014) Pheromones, male lures, and trapping of tephritid fruit flies. In: Shelly TE, Epsky N, Jang EB, Reyes-Flores J, Vargas RI (eds) Trapping and the detection, control, and regulation of tephritid fruit flies. Springer, Dondrecht, pp 15–74Google Scholar
- Vijaysegaran S (1997) Fruit fly research and development in tropical Asia. In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI (eds) Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. A regional symposium, ACIAR proceedings, vol 76, pp 21–29Google Scholar