From the male flowers of Ginkgo biloba L., 26 compounds were isolated and identified including 7-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-1(3H)- isobenzofuranone (1), piperoside (2), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1, 2-diol (3), ginkgolide B (4), ginkgolide C (5), hexyl-β-getiobioside (6), benzyl-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), ginkgolic acid (8), kaempferol-3-O-[6′′′-O-p-coumaroyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyrano-side] (9), quercetin-3-O-[6′′′-O-p-coumaroyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (10), apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (11), kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside (12), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (13), quercetin-3-O-β-d- glucopyranoside (14), quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside (15), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (16), kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (17), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-galactoside-4′-O-β-d-glucoside (18), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (19), rutin (20), kaempferol-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (21), argaminolic A (22), 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,3′-imino-di-benzoic acid (23), nicotinamide (24), uracil (25), and capilliplactone (26). Among them, compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 22, 23, and 26 were found in the class Ginkgopsida for the first time. Compounds 8, 11, and 21 showed better active inhibitory effects on NO production among the tested compounds. Compounds 8 and 11 also showed cytotoxicity on three cancer cells. Our phytochemical study of G. biloba flowers enriched the diversity of Ginkgo chemical compositions and may broaden its application in phytotherapy.
Ginkgo biloba flowers Chemical constituents Anti-inflammation Anti-proliferation
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We are grateful to Mrs Yan Wu of the Institute of Materia Medica in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences for the NMR.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not include any studies with human or animal subjects and no ethics approval is needed.
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