Medicinal Chemistry Research

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 2727–2736 | Cite as

Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the oleoylethanolamide effects and its pyrazonilic analogue in melanoma cells

  • Priscila Antiqueira-Santos
  • Daiane S. dos Santos
  • Carolina R. L. Hack
  • Alex Fabiani C. Flores
  • Marcelo G. Montes D’Oca
  • Luciana A. Piovesan
  • Luiz Eduardo M. Nery
  • Ana Paula S. VottoEmail author
Original Research


The search for more substances that effectively fight melanoma is extremely important, because of its aggressive nature. In this sense, the molecular hybridization is a promising strategy. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the antiproliferative effect of the endocannabinoid oleoylethanolamide can be improved with the addition of a trifluoromethylated pyrazolinic nucleus on its structure in B16F10 cell line. The pyrazolinic analog was named oleoyl pyrazoline. We also compared the effects of oleoylethanolamide and that of the classic endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). The cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, the intracellular reactive oxygen species generation by fluorimetry, and apoptosis/necrosis by fluorescent microscopy. Also, α-tocopherol antioxidant was used to evaluate the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the cellular response. Although the effects of AEA occur in smaller concentrations, the results show that the effects of AEA and oleoylethanolamide were similar. The results showed a decrease in cell viability, induction of apoptosis and necrosis, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species by the oleoylethanolamide, while the oleoyl pyrazoline increased cell proliferation and decreased reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the effects of oleoylethanolamide in cell viability were decreased by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species by α-tocopherol. Therefore, it is possible to suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the effect of oleoylethanolamide in the B16F10 cells. Considering the great need to find substances that can fight melanoma and the lack of greater elucidation in the action mechanisms of cannabinoids and their analogs, this work provides important new information that could serve as reference to other studies.


Cell viability Apoptosis B16F10 cell line Oleoylpyrazoline Oxidative stress 



This work was supported by the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas (FURG). P.A.S. received a graduate fellowship from Brazilian CAPES. We are thankful to Anahy Fazio, Milene Medeiros and Fernanda Lopes for help on the work, and for financial support from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS/PRONEM) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

44_2017_1971_MOESM1_ESM.docx (525 kb)
Supplementary Information


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priscila Antiqueira-Santos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daiane S. dos Santos
    • 3
  • Carolina R. L. Hack
    • 3
  • Alex Fabiani C. Flores
    • 4
  • Marcelo G. Montes D’Oca
    • 3
  • Luciana A. Piovesan
    • 3
    • 5
  • Luiz Eduardo M. Nery
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana Paula S. Votto
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande–FURGRio GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Cultura Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, FURGRio GrandeBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório Kolbe de Síntese Orgânica, Escola de Química e Alimentos, FURGRio GrandeBrazil
  4. 4.Escola de Química e Alimentos, FURGRio GrandeBrazil
  5. 5.Nanobusiness Informação e Inovação Ltda, Incubadora de Projetos, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia–INMETRODuque de CaxiasBrazil

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