Health inequalities in terms of myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality: a study with German claims data covering 2006 to 2015
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International comparisons are suggesting that mortality inequalities may have changed in the last years, although not always into the same direction. Only a few studies examined myocardial infarction (MI). In our study, long-term developments of MI and all-cause mortality were considered by analysing social gradients by income.
German claims data covering 2006 to 2015 (N = 2,474,448) were used with myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality as outcomes. Socio-economic position was depicted by individual income. Health inequalities were measured by hazard ratios between and within income groups for 10 consecutive calendar years.
In men, income gradients of MI and all-cause mortality were decreasing. In women, no income gradients emerged for MI, and they disappeared in mortality. In men, hazard ratios of MI and mortality decreased in the intermediate and in the lowest income thirds, thus leading to a reduction of MI-related health inequalities.
Income inequalities in terms of myocardial infarction and of mortality have narrowed in men, and those in the lowest income third were profiting most. No such changes were observed in women.
KeywordsSocial inequality Health inequalities Long-term trends Myocardial infarction Income Claims data
The work reported in this paper was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under project number GE1167/15-1 and by the Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Niedersachsen (Local Statutory Health Insurance of Lower Saxony, Germany, no funding number assigned) to Siegfried Geyer.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
S. Geyer has received several project fundings from the Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Niedersachsen—AOKN (Local Statutory Health Insurance of Lower Saxony, Germany (no funding number assigned), and from the Stiftung Kinderherzen. For the present paper, he received also funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under project number GE1167/15-1. J. Tetzlaff is partly employed in the project this paper is based on; thus, she is indirectly receiving a salary from the AOKN. S. Sperlich No conflict of interest declared. J. Epping No conflict of interest declared. S. Eberhard She is employed by the AOKN.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Not applicable as the study was conducted with routine data.
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