Building collaborative capability between law enforcement and civil society leaders to prevent urban violence
This research paper analyses how applying a Place-Based Leadership Development (P-BLD) programme adds value to an ongoing intersectoral Urban Violence Prevention Programme (IUVP) in Kenya building trust within collaboratives in the intersection between the historically adversarial law enforcement and civil society sectors.
Data on participants’ experience of the P-BLD programme were systematically collected through detailed pre- and post-session questionnaires which included a series of challenging but open questions. A framework analysis was undertaken to draw out the common themes.
By surfacing emotional, relational and structural tensions between law enforcement and civil society within the context of IUVP, the P-BLD programme has enabled leaders to become more open to and respecting others’ perspectives as a first step towards a more collaborative mindset.
The P-BLD programme is having a positive impact, explicitly addressing the tensions and enabling leaders to share their concerns and challenges in working towards violence prevention at the intersection between law enforcement and civil society. Moreover, this approach is replicable creating new knowledge and sustainable mechanisms for violence prevention within urban areas across the world.
KeywordsCriminal justice Intersectoral urban violence prevention Collaboratives Violence reduction Place-based leadership development Civil society Mindset Trust Collective impact
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study is part of an ongoing research project, and it was carried out in accordance with University Ethics guidelines as approved by the University Research Ethics Group (UREG).
Research participants were provided with an informed consent form explaining that research would be an integral part of and improve the P-BLD programme’s effectiveness as well as the background and purpose of the research. Informed consent forms were signed by both the research team and participants and clearly set out participant’s right to withdraw from the study.
- Bassot B (2016) The reflective journal, 2nd edn. Palgrave Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Boud D, Keogh R, Walker D (eds) (1985) Reflection: turning experience into learning. Kogan Page, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Boyd DE (2014) The growth mindset approach: a threshold concept in course redesign. J Cent Teach Learn 6:29–44Google Scholar
- Commonwealth Human Rights Institute (CHRI)/Katiba Institute (2016) 101 Things you wanted to know about the police but were afraid to ask. CHRI/Katiba Institute, NairobiGoogle Scholar
- Dweck C (2006) Mindset: the new psychology of success. Ballantine Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Dweck C (2017) Mindset: updated changing the way you think to fulfil your potential. Little Brown Book Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Hernez-Broome G, Hughes RL (2004) Leadership development: past, present, and future. Hum Resour Plan 27(1):24–32. http://home.mycybernet.net/~taylors/Publish/leadership%20development.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2017
- Kania J, Kramer M (2011) Collective impact. Stanf Soc Innov Rev 36–41. https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collective_impact. Accessed 21 May 2017
- Kania J, Hanleybrown F, Splansky Juster J (2014) Essential mindset shifts for collective impact. Stanf Soc Innov Rev 2–5. https://ssir.org/articles/entry/essential_mindset_shifts_for_collective_impact. Accessed 20 May 2017
- Kempster S, Parry KW (2004) The lived experience as leadership development. In: Proceedings of the 18th annual conference of the Australian and New Zealand academy of management ANZAM 2004. http://works.bepress.com/ken_parry/22/. Accessed 15 June 2016
- Kjaerulf F (2017) The intersectoral urban violence prevention programme—knowledge base, design principles and challenges on the road to social change. In: Seminar presentation, 10th May, DIGNITY—Danish Institute against Torture, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
- Kjaerulf F, Barahona R (2010) Preventing violence and reinforcing human security: a rights-based framework for top-down and bottom-up action. Rev Panam Salud Publica (Pan Am J Public Health) 27(5):382–395. https://scielosp.org/pdf/rpsp/2010.v27n5/382-395/en. Accessed 10 June 2017
- Korstange R (2016) Developing growth mindset through reflective writing. J Stud Success Retent 3(1):1–1. http://www.jossr.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/KostangeArticle-3.pdf. Accessed 12 Jan 2017
- Murunga GR, Nasong’o SW (2007) Kenya: the struggle for democracy. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Schon DA (1983) The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Schon DA (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner: toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- Schon DA (1991) The reflective practitioner. Temple Smith, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Srivastava A, Thomson SB (2009) Framework analysis: a qualitative methodology for applied policy research. J Adm Gov 4(2). http://research.apc.org/images/a/ad/Framework_analysis.pdf. Accessed 12 March 2016
- Tran N, Langlois EV, Reveiz L, Varallyay I, Elias V, Mancuso A, Becerra-Posada F, Ghaffar A (2017) Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Rev Panam Salud Publica (Pan Am J Public Health) 41: e75:1–5. https://scielosp.org/article/rpsp/2017.v41/e75/. Accessed 12 Aug 2017
- United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) (2008) Report from OHCHR fact-finding mission to Kenya, 6–28 February. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Press/OHCHRKenyareport.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2018
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2016) International statistics database. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/search.html?q=homicide. Accessed 31 May 2018
- United Nations, World Bank (2018) Pathways for peace: inclusive approaches to preventing violent conflict. World Bank, Washington, DC. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/28337. Accessed 21 May 2018
- World Bank (2011a) Violence in the city: understanding and supporting community responses to urban violence. World Bank, Washington, DC. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/27454. Accessed 12 March 2017
- World Development Report (2011b) Conflict, security, and development. World Bank, Washington, DC. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/4389. Accessed 12 March 2017
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2012) Changing mindsets: strategy on health policy and systems research. World Health Organization, Geneva. http://www.who.int/alliance-hpsr/alliancehpsr_changingmindsets_strategyhpsr.pdf. Accessed 12 Jan 2016
- Worrall R (2014) Illuminating the way: towards an emergent theory of place-based leadership development. BAM doctoral symposium, University of Ulster Business School, Belfast, 8th SeptemberGoogle Scholar
- Worrall R (2015) Illuminating the way: an emergent theory of place-based leadership development. Doctoral thesis, Lord Ashcroft International Business School, Anglia Ruskin University. http://arro.anglia.ac.uk/700620/. Accessed 12 Dec 2016
- Worrall R, Callahan R (2017) Placed-based public value: collaboratives and leadership findings from the United States and United Kingdom. Presented at the 2nd international public and political leadership (PUPOL) conference, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, 6–7 AprilGoogle Scholar
- Worrall R, Kjaerulf F (2017) Transforming places, people and minds: the role of place-based leadership development in urban violence prevention. Presented at the 9th developing leadership capacity conference (DLCC), University of Brighton, United Kingdom, 13–14 JulyGoogle Scholar
- Yin RK (2003) Case study research, 3rd edn. Sage Publications Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar