Adequate and excessive food consumption in Suriname: a multiethnic middle-income country
To explore food consumption among different sex, age, ethnic, urban, education and income groups in Suriname.
Data from a cross-sectional population study (n = 5748; 15–64 year) were used. Food consumption was defined adequate if (1) fruit and vegetable intake was conformable to WHO recommendations, (2) mostly vegetable oil was used, and (3) whole-wheat products were used ≥ 3 days/week. Food consumption was defined excessive if 3 out of the following 5 items scored positive: consumption of (1) snack, (2) sweet, (3) fast food, or (4) soft drink ≥ 3 days/week, or (5) salt was always added while preparing a hot meal.
6.4% (95% CI 5.8–7.1) had an adequate and 21.9% (95% CI 20.9–23.0) an excessive food consumption pattern, with differences among ethnic groups (p < 0.05). Adequate consumption increased, while excessive consumption decreased with increasing age (p < 0.05). Both adequate and excessive consumption increased with higher degree of urbanization, level of education and income (p < 0.05). Except for level of education for adequate consumption, all characteristics remained in both models with adequate and excessive consumption as outcome (p < 0.09).
Our study suggests interventions to promote adequate food consumption in general and to limit excessive food consumption mainly focused on youngsters and those living in urbanized areas of higher socioeconomic status.
KeywordsFood consumption Fruit and vegetable intake Ethnicity Urbanization Middle-income country Suriname Health Study
This study was conducted by the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the Anton de Kom University of Suriname in close collaboration with the Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). We acknowledge the participation of all the respondents and the support of all the personnel in this study.
LNV conducted statistical analysis, reviewed the data and results and wrote the manuscript. IK and others designed and coordinated the Suriname Health Study with assistance of CAS and EM. In specific, EM participated at the diet working group designing the diet module of the Suriname Health Study protocol. IK, CAS and EM collaborated with the interpretation of data, reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures involving human subjects were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health of Suriname (Commissie mensgebonden wetenschappelijk onderzoek, VG 004-2013). All subjects gave their informed consent in writing.
- Crowe FL, Roddam AW, Key TJ et al (2011) Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study. Eur Heart J 32(10):1235–1243. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq465 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Department of Public Health AdeKUS (2017) Chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Databook for Suriname. http://www.gov.sr/ministerie-van-volksgezondheid/publicaties/data-en-statistieken/nationaal-ncd-steps-onderzoek-suriname-resultaten-01-2014.aspx. Accessed 1 Oct 2017
- GBD Collaborators GBD (2016) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388(10053):1659–1724. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31679-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- General Bureau of Statistics Suriname (2013) Statistical yearbook 2012, Suriname. In: Suriname in numbers, vol 296Google Scholar
- Greenwood DC, Threapleton DE, Evans CE et al (2014) Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Br J Nutr 112(5):725–734. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114514001329 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jankovic N, Geelen A, Streppel MT et al (2014) Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States. Am J Epidemiol 180(10):978–988. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu229 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Krishnadath IS, Jaddoe VW, Nahar-van Venrooij LM, Toelsie JR (2016a) Ethnic differences in prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in the Suriname Health Study: a cross sectional population study. Popul Health Metr 14:33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0102-4 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- NCD Alliance (2016) The global epidemic. http://www.ncdalliance.org/globalepidemic. Accessed 18 Oct 2016
- Punwasi W (2012) Bureau Openbare Gezondheidszorg. Doodsoorzaken in Suriname 2007-2011Google Scholar
- Ramírez-Silva JAR, Ponce Xochitl, Hernández-Ávila Mauricio (2009) Fruit and vegetable intake in the Mexican population: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Salud Publica Mexico 51(suppl 4):S574–S585Google Scholar
- Satheannoppakao W, Aekplakorn W, Pradipasen M (2009) Fruit and vegetable consumption and its recommended intake associated with sociodemographic factors: Thailand National Health Examination Survey III. Public Health Nutr 12(11):2192–2198. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980009005837 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suriname Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing, General Bureau of Statistics Suriname (2013) Suriname multiple indicator cluster survey 2010, Final report, ParamariboGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2003) WHO technical report series. Diet nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseasesGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2012) Guideline: sodium intake for adults and children. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77985/1/9789241504836_eng.pdf. Accesses 16 Mar 2017
- WHO (2013) Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/94384/1/9789241506236_eng.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2017
- WHO (2014) STEPwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- World Bank (2014). Countries and economies. World Bank, Washington, DC. http://data.worldbank.org/country. Accessed 13 June 2013