Three-Dimensional Reverse Time Migration of Ground-Penetrating Radar Signals
- 90 Downloads
Three-dimensional (3D) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems and 3D seismic imaging techniques have been developing fast and evolving rapidly in the last decade. Ray-based migration methods have been successfully applied to processing 3D GPR signals based on the similarity between electromagnetic and seismic waves. However, reverse time migration (RTM) of 3D GPR signals has not been well studied in the past. In this paper, we present a 3D RTM based on Maxwell’s equations for 3D GPR surveys. Migration recovers the true subsurface structure from a distorted and unfocused time profile and suppresses common electromagnetic clutter and noise. RTM based on Maxwell’s equations can consider conductivity directly and compensate for the attenuation within a high-conductivity zone. Compared with 2D RTM, 3D RTM back-propagates both in-line and cross-line signals simultaneously and can include complex 3D permittivity and conductivity models. We have integrated a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm based on a hybrid MPI and OpenMP scheme to reduce the computational cost of 3D problems. The 3D RTM experiments on an anomaly of “EM” shape and a realistic sand dune model demonstrate the effective recovery of 3D subsurface structures.
KeywordsThree-dimensional (3D) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reverse time migration (RTM)
This work is supported by the National Science Foundation of China (41574104, 41874082). The calculations were performed on a Tianhe-1(A) supercomputer. We are grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their excellent reviews and constructive suggestions.
- Biondi, B. (2007). Concepts and Applications in 3D Seismic Imaging. Society of Exploration Geophysicists and European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers.Google Scholar
- Daniels, D. J. (2005). Ground Penetrating Radar. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Feng, X., Wang, Q., Lu, Q., Liu, C., Liang, W., Li, H., Yu, Y., Ren, Q. (July 2012). Subsurface imaging by modified migration for irregular GPR data. In: 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). pp. 3194–3197.Google Scholar
- Fu, L., Liu, S., Liu, L., & Wu, J. (2014). Airborne ground penetrating radar numerical simulation and reverse time migration. Chinese Journal of Geophysics-Chinese Edition, 57(5), 1636–1646.Google Scholar
- Jol, H. M. (2008). Ground penetrating radar theory and applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Klokov, A., Sato, M. (July 2011). Application of 3-D migration algorithm to GPR on an irregular ground surface. In: 2011 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). pp. 870–873.Google Scholar
- Meles, G. A., Van Der Kruk, J., Greenhalgh, S. A., Ernst, J. R., Maurer, H., & Green, A. G. (2010). A new vector waveform inversion algorithm for simultaneous updating of conductivity and permittivity parameters from combination crosshole/borehole-to- surface GPR data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 48(9), 3391–3407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olhoeft, G. R. (1998). Electrical, magnetic, and geometric properties that determine ground penetrating radar performance. In: Proceedings of GPR ‘98, Seventh International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. Vol. 98. pp. 177–182.Google Scholar
- Su, M., El-Kady, I., Bader, D., Lin, S. (Aug 2004). A novel FDTD application featuring OpenMP-MPI hybrid parallelization. In: ICPP 2004 International Conference on Parallel Processing. Vol. 1. pp. 373–379.Google Scholar
- Whitmore, N. D. (1983). Iterative depth migration by backward time propagation. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, 1983, 382–385.Google Scholar
- Zhu, W., & Huang, Q. (2016). Attenuation compensated reverse time migration method of ground penetrating radar signals. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 59(10), 3909.Google Scholar