Advertisement

Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 176, Issue 11, pp 4921–4940 | Cite as

Transverse Tectonics Structures in the Garhwal Himalaya Corridor Inferred from 3D Inversion of Magnetotelluric Profile Data

  • Anita Devi
  • Mohammad IsrailEmail author
  • Pravin K. Gupta
  • S. K. Varshney
  • Naser Meqbel
Article
  • 162 Downloads

Abstract

In the Garhwal Himalayan Corridor (GHC), we recorded the magnetotelluric (MT) data at 40 sites, in three phases. Out of these 40 sites, useful tipper or vertical magnetic field transfer function (VTF) data was available only at 19 sites. The resistivity model, obtained from 3D inversion of the MT data, is used to investigate the existence of transverse tectonic structures in the Garhwal Himalaya. Through a synthetic inversion experiment on scattered data over a profile, like our GHC profile, we have demonstrated that the MT data can be used to qualitatively infer about the off-profile resistivity structures within about 20 km from the profile. We carried out several 3D inversion experiments using different subsets of full impedance tensor and VTF responses individually and jointly to arrive at the final resistivity model. The 2D profile section of our 3D resistivity model explains the thrust tectonic and flat ramp flat geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Furthermore, the inverted model delineated Delhi–Haridwar Ridge (DHR) as a highly resistive (> 1000 Ωm) feature beneath the low resistive (< 50 Ωm) sediments of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). The DHR continues up to the Inner Lesser Himalayan region, and it is bounded by two conductive (< 10 Ωm) fluid-saturated fractured zones situated off-profile, and these run nearly parallel to the DHR. From the electrical image of the DHR and of the associated conducting feature, which have the geoelectric strike of N13°E, we inferred that these features are transverse to the main Himalayan arc.

Keywords

Magnetotelluric 3D inversion earthquake hypocenters Delhi–Haridwar Ridge 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India (grant no. MES-731-ESD) for financial support. The authors are also thankful to Prof. Gary Egbert and Anna Kelbert for providing us the ModEM code. We also thank Dr. Gautam Rawat for providing us their model in digital format and Prof. Ramesh Chandar for sparing his time in careful reading of the final form of the paper. We thank the reviewers of the paper for constructive comments and suggestions which helped us to improve the quality of the paper.

References

  1. Arora, B. R., & Adam, A. (1992). Anomalous directional behaviour of induction arrows above elongated conductive structures and its possible causes. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors,74(3–4), 183–190.Google Scholar
  2. Arora, B. R., Unsworth, M. J., & Rawat, G. (2007). Deep resistivity structure of the northwest Indian Himalaya and its tectonic implications. Geophysical Research Letters.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL029165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auden, J. B. (1935). Transverses in the Himalaya. Geological Survey of India Recruitment,69(2), 123–167.Google Scholar
  4. Avdeeva, A., Moorkamp, M., Avdeev, D., Jegen, M., & Miensopust, M. (2015). Three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric impedance tensor data and full distortion matrix. Geophysical Journal International,202(1), 464–481.Google Scholar
  5. Bansal, B. K., & Verma, M. (2012). The M 4.9 Delhi earthquake of 5 March 2012. Current Science,102(12), 1704–1708.Google Scholar
  6. Byerlee, J. (1990). Friction, overpressure and fault normal compression. Geophysical Research Letters,17(12), 2109–2112.Google Scholar
  7. Caldwell, W. B., Klemperer, S. L., Lawrence, J. F., & Rai, S. S. (2013). Characterizing the main Himalayan Thrust in the Garhwal Himalaya, India with receiver function CCP stacking. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,367, 15–27.Google Scholar
  8. Egbert, G. D., & Kelbert, A. (2012). Computational recipes for electromagnetic inverse problems. Geophysical Journal International,189(1), 251–267.Google Scholar
  9. Friedrichs, B. (2003). MAPROS: Magnetotelluric data processing software. Braunschweig: Metronix GmbH.Google Scholar
  10. Gahalaut, V. K., & Arora, B. R. (2012). Segmentation of seismicity along the Himalayan Arc due to structural heterogeneities in the under-thrusting Indian plate and overriding Himalayan wedge. Episodes,35(4), 493–500.Google Scholar
  11. Gahalaut, V. K., & Kundu, B. (2012). Possible influence of subducting ridges on the Himalayan arc and on the ruptures of great and major Himalayan earthquakes. Gondwana Research,21(4), 1080–1088.Google Scholar
  12. Gansser, A. (1974). Himalaya (Vol. 4, pp. 267–278). London: Geological Society. (Special Publications).Google Scholar
  13. Godin, L., & Harris, L. B. (2014). Tracking basement cross-strike discontinuities in the Indian crust beneath the Himalayan orogen using gravity data—relationship to upper crustal faults. Geophysical Journal International,198(1), 198–215.Google Scholar
  14. Gokarn, S. G., Gupta, G., Rao, C. K., & Selvaraj, C. (2002). Electrical structure across the Indus Tsangpo suture and Shyok suture zones in NW Himalaya using magnetotelluric studies. Geophysical Research Letters,29(8), 92-1–92-4.Google Scholar
  15. Gupta, G., Gokarn, S. G., & Singh, B. P. (1994). Thickness of the Siwalik sediments in the Mohand-Ramnagar region using magnetotelluric studies. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors,83(3–4), 217–224.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, R. A. (1998). Introduction to special section: Stress triggers, stress shadows, and implications for seismic hazard. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth,103(B10), 24347–24358.Google Scholar
  17. Israil, M., Mamoriya, P., Gupta, P. K., & Varshney, S. K. (2016). Transverse tectonics feature delineated by modelling of magnetotelluric data from Garhwal Himalaya corridor India. Current Science,111(5), 868–875.Google Scholar
  18. Israil, M., Tyagi, D. K., Gupta, P. K., & Niwas, S. (2008). Magnetotelluric investigations for imaging electrical structure of Garhwal Himalayan corridor, Uttarakhand India. Journal of Earth System Science,117(3), 189.Google Scholar
  19. Kanaujia, J., Kumar, A., & Gupta, S. C. (2016). Three-dimensional velocity structure around Tehri region of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya: Constraints on geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate. Geophysical Journal International,205(2), 900–914.Google Scholar
  20. Khattri, K. M., & Tyagi, A. (1983a). Seismicity patterns in the Himalayan plate boundary and identification of the areas of high seismic potential. Tectonophysics,96(3–4), 281–297.Google Scholar
  21. Khattri, K., & Tyagi, A. K. (1983b). The transverse tectonic features in the Himalaya. Tectonophysics,96(1–2), 19–29.Google Scholar
  22. Kiyan, D., Jones, A. G., & Vozar, J. (2013). The inability of magnetotelluric off-diagonal impedance tensor elements to sense oblique conductors in three-dimensional inversion. Geophysical Journal International,196(3), 1351–1364.Google Scholar
  23. Kumar, G. P., Manglik, A., & Thiagarajan, S. (2014). Crustal geoelectric structure of the Sikkim Himalaya and adjoining Gangetic foreland basin. Tectonophysics,637, 238–250.Google Scholar
  24. Lemonnier, C., Marquis, G., Perrier, F., Avouac, J. P., Chitrakar, G., Kafle, B., et al. (1999). Electrical structure of the Himalaya of central Nepal: High conductivity around the mid-crustal ramp along the MHT. Geophysical Research Letters,26(21), 3261–3264.Google Scholar
  25. Mahesh, P., Rai, S. S., Sivaram, K., Paul, A., Gupta, S., Sarma, R., et al. (2013). One dimensional reference velocity model and precise locations of earthquake hypocenters in the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America,103(1), 328–339.Google Scholar
  26. Manglik, A., Kumar, G. P., & Thiagarajan, S. (2013). Transverse tectonics in the Sikkim Himalaya: A magnetotelluric study. Tectonophysics,589, 142–150.Google Scholar
  27. Miglani, R., Shahrukh, M., Israil, M., Gupta, P. K., Varshney, S. K., & Elena, S. (2014). Geoelectric structure estimated from magnetotelluric data from the Uttarakhand Himalaya India. Journal of earth system science,123(8), 1907–1918.Google Scholar
  28. Prasath, R. A., Paul, A., & Singh, S. (2017). Upper crustal stress and seismotectonics of the Garhwal Himalaya using small-to-moderate earthquakes: Implications to the local structures and free fluids. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences,135, 198–211.Google Scholar
  29. Qureshy, M. N. (1969). Thickening of a basalt layer as a possible cause for the uplift of the Himalayas—a suggestion based on gravity data. Tectonophysics,7(2), 137–157.Google Scholar
  30. Rawat, G., Arora, B. R., & Gupta, P. K. (2014). Electrical resistivity cross-section across the Garhwal Himalaya: Proxy to fluid-seismicity linkage. Tectonophysics,637, 68–79.Google Scholar
  31. Sati, D., & Nautiyal, S. P. (1994). Possible role of Delhi–Haridwar subsurface ridge in generation of Uttarkashi earthquake, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Current Science,67, 39–44.Google Scholar
  32. Sen, A., Kumar, A., Gupta, S. C., & Kumar, A. (2014). Spectral analysis of the earthquake sources around Roorkee (INDIA) region and its surrounding Indo-Gangetic planes. Disaster Advances,7(6), 1–11.Google Scholar
  33. Shandilya, A. K., & Shandilya, A. (2016). Studies on the Seismicity in Garhwal Himalaya, India. In N. Raju (Ed.), Geostatistical and geospatial approaches for the characterization of natural resources in the environment (pp. 503–512). Cham: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18663-4_76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh, A. (2018). Development of MATLAB based 3D inversion algorithm for MT and DCR data. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.Google Scholar
  35. Singh, A., Dehiya, R., Gupta, P. K., & Israil, M. (2017). A MATLAB based 3D modeling and inversion code for MT data. Computers & Geosciences,104, 1–11.Google Scholar
  36. Siripunvaraporn, W., Egbert, G., & Uyeshima, M. (2005). Interpretation of two-dimensional magnetotelluric profile data with three-dimensional inversion: Synthetic examples. Geophysical Journal International,160(3), 804–814.Google Scholar
  37. Smirnov, M. Y. (2003). Magnetotelluric data processing with a robust statistical procedure having a high breakdown point. Geophysical Journal International,152(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  38. Spratt, J. E., Jones, A. G., Nelson, K. D., Unsworth, M. J., & INDEPTH MT Team. (2005). Crustal structure of the India-Asia collision zone, southern Tibet, from INDEPTH MT investigations. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors,150(1–3), 227–237.Google Scholar
  39. Thakur, V. C., & Rawat, B. S. (1992). Geological map of the western Himalaya 1:1,200,000. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  40. Tietze, K., Ritter, O., & Egbert, G. D. (2015). 3-D joint inversion of the magnetotelluric phase tensor and vertical magnetic transfer functions. Geophysical Journal International,203(2), 1128–1148.Google Scholar
  41. Unsworth, M. (2010). Magnetotelluric studies of active continent–continent collisions. Surveys In Geophysics,31(2), 137–161.Google Scholar
  42. Unsworth, M. J., Jones, A. G., Wei, W., Marquis, G., Gokarn, S. G., Spratt, J. E., et al. (2005). Crustal rheology of the Himalaya and Southern Tibet inferred from magnetotelluric data. Nature,438(7064), 78.Google Scholar
  43. Valdiya, K. S. (1976). Himalayan transverse faults and folds and their parallelism with subsurface structures of north Indian plains. Tectonophysics,32(3–4), 353–386.Google Scholar
  44. Valdiya, K. S. (1980). Geology of the Kumaon Lesser Himalaya. Dehra Dun: Wadia Institute of Himalaya.Google Scholar
  45. Varentsov, I. M. (2007). Joint robust inversion of magnetotelluric and magnetovariational data. Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics,40, 185–218.Google Scholar
  46. Varentsov, I. M., & Sokolova, E. Y. (2005). The magnetic control approach for the reliable estimation of transfer functions in the EMTESZ Pomerania project. Publications of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences,95(386), 68–79.Google Scholar
  47. Varentsov, I. M., Sokolova, E. Y., Martanus, E. R., & Nalivaiko, K. V. (2003). System of electromagnetic field transfer operators for the BEAR array of simultaneous soundings: Methods and results. Izvestiya Physics of the Solid Earth,39(2), 118–148.Google Scholar
  48. Wason, H. R., Kumar, J., & Walia, S. K. (1999). Local seismicity of the Garhwal Himalaya subsequent to the Uttarkashi earthquake of October 20, 1991. Gondwana Research Group Memoir,6, 335–340.Google Scholar
  49. Yu, G., Khattri, K. N., Anderson, J. G., Brune, J. N., & Zeng, Y. (1995). Strong ground motion from the Uttarkashi, Himalaya, India, earthquake: Comparison of observations with synthetics using the composite source model. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America,85(1), 31–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Devi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Israil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pravin K. Gupta
    • 1
  • S. K. Varshney
    • 2
  • Naser Meqbel
    • 3
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Science and TechnologyNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Helmholtz Centre PotsdamGFZ German Research Centre for GeosciencesPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations