Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 175, Issue 10, pp 3697–3718 | Cite as

Regional Climate Model Performance in Simulating Intra-seasonal and Interannual Variability of Indian Summer Monsoon

  • R. BhatlaEmail author
  • Soumik Ghosh
  • R. K. Mall
  • P. Sinha
  • Abhijit Sarkar


Establishment of Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall passes through the different phases and is not uniformly distributed over the Indian subcontinent. This enhancement and reduction in daily rainfall anomaly over the Indian core monsoon region during peak monsoon season (i.e., July and August) are commonly termed as ‘active’ and ‘break’ phases of monsoon. The purpose of this study is to analyze REGional Climate Model (RegCM) results obtained using the most suitable convective parameterization scheme (CPS) to determine active/break phases of ISM. The model-simulated daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), mean sea level pressure (MSLP), and the wind at 850 hPa of spatial resolution of 0.5°× 0.5° are compared with NOAA, NCEP, and EIN15 data, respectively over the South-Asia Co-Ordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) region. 25 years (1986–2010) composites of OLR, MSLP, and the wind at 850 hPa are considered from start to the dates of active/break phase and up to the end dates of active/break spell of monsoon. A negative/positive anomaly of OLR with active/break phase is found in simulations with CPSs Emanuel and Mix99 (Grell over land; Emanuel over ocean) over the core monsoon region as well as over Monsoon Convergence Zone (MCZ) of India. The appearance of monsoon trough during active phase over the core monsoon zone and its shifting towards the Himalayan foothills during break phase are also depicted well. Because of multi-cloud function over oceanic region and single cloud function over the land mass, the Mix99 CPSs perform well in simulating the synoptic features during the phases of monsoon.


Active/break phase Indian summer monsoon (ISM) REGional Climate Model (RegCM) CORDEX convective parameterization scheme (CPS) 



Indian summer monsoon


REGional Climate Model by ICTP


Convective parameterization scheme


Outgoing longwave radiation


Mean sea level pressure


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


National Center for Environmental Prediction




Monsoon Convergence Zone


Co-Ordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment


India Meteorological Department


Intergovernmental panel on climate change


International Center for Theoretical Physics


Mesoscale model version 5


Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme


Planetary boundary layer


Initial conditions and boundary conditions


Optimum interpolation sea surface temperature


OISST in weekly pattern


National Climate Centre




Standard deviation


Root mean square error




European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts





This work is a part of a R&D project, funded by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India. The authors wish to thank NOAA/OAR/ESRL (Boulder, Colorado, USA; and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for providing gridded datasets. Special thanks to the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy, for providing the RegCM. The Authors wish to extend their sincere gratitude to the Journal Editor and the Reviewers for their insightful comments on the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Bhatla
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Soumik Ghosh
    • 1
  • R. K. Mall
    • 2
  • P. Sinha
    • 3
  • Abhijit Sarkar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Geophysics, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.DST-Mahamana Centre of Excellence for Climate Change Research, Institute of Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.School of Earth Ocean and Climate SciencesIndian Institute of Technology (IIT)BhubaneswarIndia
  4. 4.National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)Ministry of Earth ScienceNoidaIndia

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