Quasi-Dynamic 3D Modeling of the Generation and Afterslip of a Tohoku-oki Earthquake Considering Thermal Pressurization and Frictional Properties of the Shallow Plate Boundary
- 45 Downloads
The generation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has been modeled by many authors by considering a dynamic weakening mechanism such as thermal pressurization (TP). Because the effects of TP on afterslip have not been investigated, this study develops a 3D quasi-dynamic model of the earthquake cycle to investigate afterslip of the Tohoku-oki earthquake, considering TP and the geometry of the plate boundary. We employ several velocity-weakening (VW) patches for Mw 7 class events, and two large shallow VW patches. The frictional properties are set as velocity-strengthening (VS) outside the VW patches. The results show that, during megathrust earthquakes, fast slip propagates to the surrounding VS regions near the VW patches owing to weakening by TP. Following Mw 9 events, large afterslips occur in regions below the northern shallow rupture area in the off-Fukushima region close to the Japan Trench, which is consistent with observations. In the VS region near the VW patches, during the early afterslip period, frictional behavior exhibits less VS with increasing slip velocity due to pore pressure reduction. We also consider the frictional properties of the shallow plate boundary fault off Tohoku, which exhibits a transition from VW to VS from low to high slip velocities. The results show the occurrence of slow slip events (SSEs) at intervals of a few decades at the shallow plate boundary. During megathrust events, the VW property at low slip velocity promotes slip along the shallow SSE region more than the case with VS property throughout the entire velocity range.
Keywords2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake 3D earthquake cycle model afterslip rate- and state-dependent friction law thermal pressurization slow slip events
We are grateful to the guest editor, Sylvain Barbot, and the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments that helped to improve the manuscript. This study was supported by MEXT KAKENHI (26109007, 24340107). This study was also supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan, under its Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Observation and Research Program. For this study, we used the computer systems of the Earthquake Information Center of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo.
- Ariyoshi, K., Matsuzawa, T., Ampuero, J. P., Nakata, R., Hori, T., Kaneda, Y., et al. (2012). Migration process of very low-frequency events based on a chain-reaction model and its application to the detection of preseismic slip for megathrust earthquakes. Earth, Planets and Space, 64, 693–702. https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2010.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brodsky, E. E., Saffer, D., Fulton, P., Chester, F., Conin, M., Huffman, K., et al. (2017). The postearthquake stress state on the Tohoku megathrust as constrained by reanalysis of the JFAST breakout data. Geophysical Research Letters, 44, 22. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL074027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cubas, N., Lapusta, N., Avouac, J.-P., & Perfettini, H. (2015). Numerical modeling of long-term earthquake sequences on the NE Japan megathrust: Comparison with observations and implications for fault friction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 419, 187–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2015.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Iinuma, T., Hino, R., Kido, M., Inazu, D., Osada, Y., Ito, Y., et al. (2012). Coseismic slip distribution of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M 9.0) refined by means of seafloor geodetic data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117, B07409. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JB009186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ikari, M.J. (2015). Data report: rate- and state-dependent friction parameters of core samples from Site C0019, IODP Expedition 343 (JFAST). In: Chester, F.M., Mori, J., Eguchi, N., Toczko, S., & the Expedition 343/343T Scientists (Eds.) Proc. IODP, 343/343T: Tokyo (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.). https://doi.org/10.2204/iodp.proc.343343t.203.2015.
- Murotani, S., (2003). Rupture processes of large Fukushima-oki Earthquakes in 1938. Master’s thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
- Noda, H., & Lapusta, N. (2010). Three-dimensional earthquake sequence simulations with evolving temperature and pore pressure due to shear heating: Effect of heterogeneous hydraulic diffusivity. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 115, B12314. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ohtani, M., Hirahara, K., Hori, T., & Hyodo, M. (2014). Observed change in plate coupling close to the rupture initiation area before the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: Implications from an earthquake cycle model. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 1899–1906. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Perfettini, H., & Avouac, J.-P. (2004). Postseismic relaxation driven by brittle creep: A possible mechanism to reconcile geodetic measurements and the decay rate of aftershocks, application to the Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 109, B02304. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JB002488.Google Scholar
- Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T., & Flannery, B. P. (1992). Numerical recipes in Fortran: The art of scientific computing (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Remitti, F., Smith, S. A. F., Mittempergher, S., Gualtieri, A. F., & Di Toro, G. (2015). Frictional properties of fault zone gouges from teh J-FAST drilling project (M w 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake). Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 2691–2699. https://doi.org/10.1002/205GL063507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salman, R., Hill, E. M., Feng, L., Lindsey, E. O., Mele Veedu, D., Barbot, S., et al. (2017). Piecemeal rupture of the Mentawai patch, Sumatra: The 2008 M w 7.2 North Pagai earthquake sequence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 122, 9404–9419. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JB014341.Google Scholar
- Satake, K., Namegaya, Y., & Yamamoto, S. (2008). Numerical simulation of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami in Ishinomaki and Sendai plains. Annual Report of Active Fault and Paleoearthquake Research, 8, 71–89.Google Scholar
- Sawai, Y., Namegaya, Y., Tamura, T., Nakashima, R., & Tanigawa, K. (2015). Shorter intervals between great earthquakes near Sendai: Scour ponds and a sand layer attributable to A.D. 1454 overwash. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 4795–4800. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shibazaki, B., Matsuzawa, T., Tsutsumi, A., Ujiie, K., Hasegawa, A., & Ito, Y. (2011). 3D modeling of the cycle of a great Tohoku-oki earthquake, considering frictional behavior at low to high slip velocities. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L21305. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shibazaki, B., & Shimamoto, T. (2007). Modelling of short-interval silent slip events in deeper subduction interfaces considering the frictional properties at the unstable–stable transition regime. Geophysical Journal International, 171, 191–205. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03434.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tanikawa, W., Hirose, T., Mukoyoshi, H., Tadai, O., & Lin, W. (2013). Fluid transport properties in sediments and their role in large slip near the surface of the plate boundary fault in the Japan Trench. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 382, 150–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.08.052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tanikawa, W., & Shimamoto, T. (2009). Frictional and transport properties of the Chelungpu fault from shallow borehole data and their correlation with seismic behavior during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 114, B01402. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB005750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsuru, T., Park, J. O., Miura, S., Kodaira, S., Kido, Y., & Hayashi, T. (2002). Along arc structural variation of the plate boundary at the Japan Trench margin: Implication of interplate coupling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 107, 2357. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB001664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsutsumi, A., Fabbri, O., Karpoff, A. M., Ujiie, K., & Tsujimoto, A. (2011). Friction velocity dependence of clay-rich fault material along a megasplay fault in the Nankai subduction zone at intermediate to high velocities. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L19301. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe, S., Sato, M., Fujita, M., Ishikawa, T., Yokota, Y., Ujihara, N., et al. (2014). Evidence of viscoelastic deformation following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake revealed from seafloor geodetic observation. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 5789–5796. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yamanaka, Y. & Kikuchi, M. (2003). Oct. 31, Fukushima-oki earthquake (Mj = 6.8). EIC Seismological Notes, 141. http://wwweic.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/sanchu/Seismo_Note/EIC_News/031031.html (in Japanese). Accessed 18 Jan 2019.
- Yokota, Y., Koketsu, K., Fujii, Y., Satake, K., Sakai, S., Shinohara, M., et al. (2011). Joint inversion of strong motion, teleseismic, geodetic, and tsunami datasets for the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L00G21. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar