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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 76, Issue 9, pp 1795–1806 | Cite as

Non-obesogenic doses of fatty acids modulate the functionality of the circadian clock in the liver

  • Yael Tal
  • Nava Chapnik
  • Oren FroyEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, lead to circadian disruption in cell culture. Moreover, information regarding the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on circadian parameters is scarce. We aimed at studying the effects of low doses of saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids on circadian metabolism in vivo and at deciphering the mechanism by which fatty acids convey their effect. Mice were fed non-obesogenic doses of palm or olive oil and hepatocytes were treated with palmitate and oleate. Mice fed non-obesogenic doses of palm oil showed increased signaling towards fatty acid synthesis, while olive oil increased signaling towards fatty acid oxidation. Low doses of palmitate and oleate were sufficient to alter circadian rhythms, due to changes in the expression and/or activity of key metabolic proteins. Palmitate, but not oleate, counteracted the reduction in lipid accumulation and BMAL1-induced expression of mitochondrial genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Palmitate was also found to interfere with the transcriptional activity of CLOCK:BMAL1 by preventing BMAL1 deacetylation and activation. In addition, palmitate, but not oleate, reduced PER2-mediated transcriptional activation and increased REV-ERBα-mediated transcriptional inhibition of Bmal1. The inhibition of PER2-mediated transcriptional activation by palmitate was achieved by interfering with PER2 nuclear translocation. Indeed, PER2 reduced fat accumulation in hepatocytes and this reduction was prevented by palmitate. Herein, we show that the detrimental metabolic alteration seen with high doses of palmitate manifests itself early on even with non-obesogenic levels. This is achieved by modulating BMAL1 at several levels abrogating its activity and expression.

Keywords

Palmitate Oleate Metabolism Liver Hepatocyte Clock Circadian 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Gad Asher, the Weizmann Institute of Science, for his kind contribution of plasmids harboring Per2, Rev-erbα and the Bmal1-luc.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 140 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 24 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael

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