Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 76, Issue 9, pp 1653–1680 | Cite as

Determinants of stem cell lineage differentiation toward chondrogenesis versus adipogenesis

  • Sheng Zhou
  • Song Chen
  • Qing Jiang
  • Ming PeiEmail author


Adult stem cells, also termed as somatic stem cells, are undifferentiated cells, detected among differentiated cells in a tissue or an organ. Adult stem cells can differentiate toward lineage specific cell types of the tissue or organ in which they reside. They also have the ability to differentiate into mature cells of mesenchymal tissues, such as cartilage, fat and bone. Despite the fact that the balance has been comprehensively scrutinized between adipogenesis and osteogenesis and between chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, few reviews discuss the relationship between chondrogenesis and adipogenesis. In this review, the developmental and transcriptional crosstalk of chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages are briefly explored, followed by elucidation of signaling pathways and external factors guiding lineage determination between chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation. An in-depth understanding of overlap and discrepancy between these two mesenchymal tissues in lineage differentiation would benefit regeneration of high-quality cartilage tissues and adipose tissues for clinical applications.


Stem cell Chondrogenesis Adipogenesis, Lineage differentiation 



We thank Suzanne Danley for editing the manuscript. This work was supported by Research Grants from the Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF) and the National Institutes of Health (1R01AR067747-01A1) to M.P., and Natural Science Foundation of China (81601889) to S.C.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of OrthopaedicsWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sports Medicine and Adult Reconstructive Surgery, School of Medicine, Drum Tower HospitalNanjing UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of OrthopaedicsChengdu Military General HospitalChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, WVU Cancer InstituteWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

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