Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 89–98 | Cite as

Dynamics and mechanisms of posterior axis elongation in the vertebrate embryo

  • Bertrand BénazérafEmail author


During development, the vertebrate embryo undergoes significant morphological changes which lead to its future body form and functioning organs. One of these noticeable changes is the extension of the body shape along the antero-posterior (A–P) axis. This A–P extension, while taking place in multiple embryonic tissues of the vertebrate body, involves the same basic cellular behaviors: cell proliferation, cell migration (of new progenitors from a posterior stem zone), and cell rearrangements. However, the nature and the relative contribution of these different cellular behaviors to A–P extension appear to vary depending upon the tissue in which they take place and on the stage of embryonic development. By focusing on what is known in the neural and mesodermal tissues of the bird embryo, I review the influences of cellular behaviors in posterior tissue extension. In this context, I discuss how changes in distinct cell behaviors can be coordinated at the tissue level (and between tissues) to synergize, build, and elongate the posterior part of the embryonic body. This multi-tissue framework does not only concern axis elongation, as it could also be generalized to morphogenesis of any developing organs.


Live imaging Bird embryo Axis elongation Proliferation PSM Multi-tissue Tissue deformations Morphogenesis 



The author thanks Rusty Lansford, David Huss, Cathy Soula, Eric Theveneau, Ben Steventon, Daniela Roellig and Octavian Voiculescu for reading and giving critical comments on the manuscript.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Biologie du Développement (CBD), Centre de Biologie Intégrative (CBI), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPSToulouseFrance

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