Algebra universalis

, 80:42 | Cite as

Characterization of metrizable Esakia spaces via some forbidden configurations

  • Guram Bezhanishvili
  • Luca CaraiEmail author


By Priestley duality, each bounded distributive lattice is represented as the lattice of clopen upsets of a Priestley space, and by Esakia duality, each Heyting algebra is represented as the lattice of clopen upsets of an Esakia space. Esakia spaces are those Priestley spaces that satisfy the additional condition that the downset of each clopen is clopen. We show that in the metrizable case Esakia spaces can be singled out by forbidding three simple configurations. Since metrizability yields that the corresponding lattice of clopen upsets is countable, this provides a characterization of countable Heyting algebras. We show that this characterization no longer holds in the uncountable case. Our results have analogues for co-Heyting algebras and bi-Heyting algebras, and they easily generalize to the setting of p-algebras.


Distributive lattice Heyting algebra p-algebra Priestley duality Esakia duality 

Mathematics Subject Classification

06D05 06D20 06E15 06D15 



We are grateful to the referee for careful reading and the comments which have improved the presentation of the paper.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematical SciencesNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA

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