Mucosal-associated invariant T cells: new players in CF lung disease?
The past decade has witnessed a surge in research centered around exploring the role of the enigmatic innate immune-like lymphocyte MAIT cell in human disease. Recent evidence has led to the elucidation of its role as a potent defender at mucosal surfaces including lungs due to its capacity to mount a formidable immediate response to bacterial pathogens. MAIT cells have a unique attribute of recognizing microbial ligands in conjunction with non-classical MHC-related protein MR1. Recent studies have demonstrated their contribution in the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary disorders including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several cellular players including innate immune cells are active contributors in the immune imbalance present in cystic fibrosis(CF) lung. This immune dysregulation serves as a central pivot in disease pathogenesis, responsible for causing immense structural damage in the CF lung. The present review focuses on understanding the role of MAIT cells in CF lung disease. Future studies directed at understanding the possible relationship between MAIT cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in CF lung disease could unravel a holistic picture where a combination of antimicrobial effects of MAIT cells and anti-inflammatory effects of Tregs could be exploited in synergy to alleviate the rapid deterioration of lung function in CF lung disease due to the underlying complex interplay between persistent infection and inflammation.
KeywordsCystic fibrosis Pulmonary inflammation MAIT cells
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