Intravenous anesthetic ketamine attenuates complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats via modulation of MAPKs/NF-κB
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The current study was intended to investigate the effect of ketamine (KET) on complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats.
The CFA was administered in the hind paw of the rats for the induction of adjuvant-induced arthritis. The paw swelling of experimental animals was measured as hind paw volume. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was estimated and pathological changes in the joint tissues were observed under a light microscope. Furthermore, the bicinchoninic acid assay was used for protein quantification. The antibody-reactive bands were visualized using enhanced chemiluminescence.
The present study showed that KET significantly reduces the severity of arthritis in CFA mice. The therapeutic effects were linked with reduced joint swelling and destruction, as evidenced by analyzing rat paws. The KET also revealed to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6). In western blot analysis, KET inhibit phosphorylation of MAPKs, IκBα and nuclear translocation NF-κB in the inflammatory joints of AIA rats. Moreover, KET showed to induce apoptosis via mitochondrial signalling pathways (Bcl2, Bax, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caapse-9).
Taken together, KET show significant anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity via multiple mechanisms and may thus have therapeutic benefits for RA.
KeywordsArthritis Inflammation Pro-inflammatory cytokines IκBα NF-κB
Authors wished to thanks authorities of Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation (2017JJ3445); Hunan science and technology project (2015SK2085); Natural Science Foundation of China (81500658), Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation (2014JJ3040).
HL conceived and designed the study, ZW performed the animal experiment, JS collected, and analyzed the data. JX performed the literature research and statistical analysis. HL prepared the paper and revised the manuscript accordingly. All authors have read and agreed with the final version of this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no competing interests associated with the manuscript.
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