Roles of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Cancer Metastasis: Immunosuppression and Beyond
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Metastasis is the direst face of cancer, and it is not a feature solely dependent on cancer cells; however, a complex interaction between cancer cells and host causes this process. Investigating the mechanisms of metastasis can lead to its control. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are key components of tumor microenvironment that favor cancer progression. These cells result from altered myelopoiesis in response to the presence of tumor. The most recognized function of MDSCs is suppressing anti-tumor immune responses. Strikingly, these cells are among important players in cancer dissemination and metastasis. They can exert their effect on metastatic process by affecting anti-cancer immunity, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell formation, angiogenesis, establishing premetastatic niche, and supporting cancer cell survival and growth in metastatic sites. In this article, we review and discuss the mechanisms by which MDSCs contribute to cancer metastasis.
KeywordsMyeloid-derived suppressor cells Metastasis Immunosuppression Premetastatic niche Angiogenesis Apoptosis
We would like to thank Dr. Susanna Mandruzzato from Oncology and Immunology Section, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy, for evaluation of the manuscript and her expert comments to improve the paper.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare they had no conflicts of interest.
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