Determination of AFB1 in clear lager beer samples from Mexico and the possible correlation between physicochemical parameters and AFB1 levels

  • Karmina Álvarez-Segovia
  • Rebeca García-Varela
  • Hugo Sergio García
  • José Eleazar Aguilar-Toalá
  • María del Carmen Estrada-Montoya
  • Belinda Vallejo-Cordoba
  • Aaron Fernando González-Córdova
  • Adrian Hernández-MendozaEmail author
Research Article


Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages; however, it may be contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a highly toxic mycotoxin. The content of AFB1 in 384 samples from 16 trademarks of clear lager beers, produced by two Mexican breweries, was evaluated and physicochemical parameters were determined. Samples were collected (4 canned or bottled beers per trademark per month) from July to December 2014 in Sonora, Northwest Mexico. Overall, results showed that all beers contained AFB1 in a range of 0.203–0.2408 μg/L. pH values, total acidity and alcohol level were significantly different (p < 0.05) between breweries; while colour and bitterness units showed no statistical differences. The Pearson correlation test revealed a significant positive (p < 0.05) relationship between the alcohol content and AFB1 levels. Although Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) have not been established for AFB1 in beer, there is a limit for processed cereals; accordingly, none of the samples exceeded the MRL of AFB1 set by Mexican standard (20 μg/L) or by the European Community (2 μg/L) for cereals and cereal-based products. However, the estimated exposure for heavy and very heavy beer consumer (0.0011, and 0.0013 μg kg/bodyweight/day, respectively) suggested that they may be exposed to significant levels of this toxin. Nonetheless, further research is still needed to determine if heavy beer consumption (> 1 L per day) represents a serious health hazard for consumers.


Lager beer Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1 Physicochemical beer parameters Mexican-produced beers 



The authors express their appreciation to Ricardo Reyes-Díaz (Department of Food Technology of Animal Origin) of CIAD, Mexico, for his valuable technical assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights statement

This study does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

3_2019_1238_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (107 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 106 kb)


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Copyright information

© Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karmina Álvarez-Segovia
    • 1
  • Rebeca García-Varela
    • 2
  • Hugo Sergio García
    • 3
  • José Eleazar Aguilar-Toalá
    • 1
  • María del Carmen Estrada-Montoya
    • 1
  • Belinda Vallejo-Cordoba
    • 1
  • Aaron Fernando González-Córdova
    • 1
  • Adrian Hernández-Mendoza
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A. C. (CIAD)HermosilloMéxico
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, UW Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of Wisconsin at MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Tecnológico Nacional de México/Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz, UNIDAVeracruzMexico

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