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Exposure of consumers and farmers to organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides in Northern Thailand

  • Surat Hongsibsong
  • Tippawan PrapamontolEmail author
  • Jie-Xian Dong
  • Candace S. Bever
  • Zhen-Lin Xu
  • Shirley J. Gee
  • Bruce D. HammockEmail author
Research Article
  • 47 Downloads

Abstract

Organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides are used for controlling residential and agricultural insect pests and disease-carrying vectors in Thailand especially in the northern region. Chiang Rai and Nan Provinces are well known for agricultural production. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides in 51 consumers and 49 farmers living in Chiang Rai and Nan Provinces by monitoring the urinary metabolites 6-dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroids. The results showed at least one metabolite was present in all subjects indicating that consumers and farmers were exposed to these pesticides. Concentrations of organophosphate and pyrethroid metabolites in consumers and farmers were similar except diethylthiophosphate which was significantly higher in farmers. Diethyldithiophosphate and 3-PBA concentrations were significantly different between the group who had reported using and not using pesticide in their house.

Keywords

Agriculture Insecticides Exposure DAPs 3-PBA Immunoassay GC-FPD 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Chiang Mai University, UC Davis Superfund Research Program P42 ES04699, and UC Davis Environmental Health Sciences Core Center P30 ES02351 for financial support.

Funding

This study was funded by UC Davis Superfund Research Program P42 ES04699, and UC Davis Environmental Health Sciences Core Center P30 ES02351.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surat Hongsibsong
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tippawan Prapamontol
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jie-Xian Dong
    • 3
  • Candace S. Bever
    • 4
  • Zhen-Lin Xu
    • 5
  • Shirley J. Gee
    • 3
  • Bruce D. Hammock
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Non communicable disease (NCD) Center of Excellence, Research Institute for Health SciencesChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Environment and Health Research Unit, Center for Applied Health Science Research, Research Institute for Health SciencesChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  3. 3.Department of Entomology and Nematology and UCD Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Agricultural Research Service, Western Regional Research Center, Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention UnitUSDAAlbanyUSA
  5. 5.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Food ScienceSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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