We explore the S-matrices of gapped, unitary, Lorentz invariant quantum field theories with a global O(N) symmetry in 1+1 dimensions. We extremize various cubic and quartic couplings in the two-to-two scattering amplitudes of vector particles. Saturating these bounds, we encounter known integrable models with O(N) symmetry such as the O(N) Gross-Neveu and non-linear sigma models and the scattering of kinks in the sine-Gordon model. We also considered more general mass spectra for which we move away from the integrable realm. In this regime we find (numerically, through a large N analysis and sometimes even analytically) that the S-matrices saturating the various coupling bounds have an extremely rich structure exhibiting infinite resonances and virtual states in the various kinematical sheets. They are rather exotic in that they admit no particle production yet they do not obey Yang-Baxter equations. We discuss their physical (ir)relevance and speculate, based on some preliminary numerics, that they might be close to more realistic theories with particle production.
Field Theories in Lower Dimensions Integrable Field Theories Nonperturbative Effects Scattering Amplitudes
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