Hunting all the hidden photons

  • Martin Bauer
  • Patrick FoldenauerEmail author
  • Joerg Jaeckel
Open Access
Regular Article - Theoretical Physics


We explore constraints on gauge bosons of a weakly coupled U(1)BL, \( \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{L_{\mu }-{L}_e},\kern0.5em \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{L_e-{L}_{\tau }}\kern0.5em \mathrm{and}\kern0.5em \mathrm{U}{(1)}_{L_{\mu }-{L}_{\tau }} \). To do so we apply the full constraining power of experimental bounds derived for a hidden photon of a secluded U(1)X and translate them to the considered gauge groups. In contrast to the secluded hidden photon that acquires universal couplings to charged Standard Model particles through kinetic mixing with the photon, for these gauge groups the couplings to the different Standard Model particles can vary widely. We take finite, computable loop-induced kinetic mixing effects into account, which provide additional sensitivity in a range of experiments. In addition, we collect and extend limits from neutrino experiments as well as astrophysical and cosmological observations and include new constraints from white dwarf cooling. We discuss the reach of future experiments in searching for these gauge bosons.


Beyond Standard Model Gauge Symmetry 


Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Bauer
    • 1
  • Patrick Foldenauer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joerg Jaeckel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

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