Trapping horizon and negative energy
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Assuming spherical symmetry and the semi-classical Einstein equation, we prove that, for the observers on top of the trapping horizon, the vacuum energy-momentum tensor is always that of an ingoing negative energy flux at the speed of light with a universal energy density ℰ ≃ − 1/(2κa2), (where a is the areal radius of the trapping horizon), which is responsible for the decrease in the black hole’s mass over time. This result is independent of the composition of the collapsing matter and the details of the vacuum energy-momentum tensor. The physics behind the universality of this quantity ℰ and its surprisingly large magnitude will be discussed.
KeywordsBlack Holes Effective Field Theories
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