Journal of Rubber Research

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 209–223 | Cite as

The Effect of Flamestab® NOR 116 on EPDM-based Automotive Sealing Profiles

  • S. Dikmen KucukEmail author
  • H. Gerengi
  • Y. Guner


Ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber is one of the fastest growing synthetic rubbers in the market. It is widely used in many fields due to its easy processing and high resistance against outdoor conditions compared to other rubber types. However, like all organic compounds, over time it is degraded under weathering conditions such as radiation, heat, ozone and chemical media, all of which can contribute to loss of bulk properties and reduce its service life. Cracks, discoloration, breakage, or staining can occur on the surface of visible automotive profiles due to the effect of UV light. These phenomena are definitely undesirable. In this study, five different EPDM rubber compounds (control and four different Flamestab® NOR 116 concentrations) were produced. The effects of the Flamestab NOR 116 were investigated by mechanical and rheological tests and ageing using the internationally recognised Florida artificial weathering test. The aged surfaces were visually scrutinised and surface morphological changes were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. The results obtained showed that Flamestab® NOR 116 can be used as a UV stabiliser for EPDM rubber applications if it is added in amounts of between 1.25 and 2.0 phr.


EPDM UV ageing sealing profiles stabilisation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    KEENEY, J. D. (2002) Automotive Vehicle Seal and Decorative Trim Strip. U.S. Patent 6 422 571.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    FREISE C. K. (2002) Handbuch der Karosseriedichtungen: Inhaltsverzeichnis, Wolfsburg, Deutchland.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anonim, (05 February 2018). [Online]. Access:
  4. 4.
    LONKAR S. P., RANA S., SINGH R. P., LACOSTE J., GARDETTE J. L., JESTIN F., BROCORD E. (2007) Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation of polymeric HALS in ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM). Journal of Macromol. Sci. A, 42(1), 1037–1046.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    MAZLUM U., VAHAPOGLU V., KARADENIZ S. (2015) Experimental investigation of the stress relaxation behaviours of EPDM synthetic rubbers. Sigma J. Eng. Nat. Sci., 33(3), 365–375.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    EROGLU A. M., ALBAYRAK G., AYDIN I., EREN M., GURKAYNAK M. A. (2006 Türkiye.) Investigation of the effect of carbon black particle size used in EPDM based mixtures on the vulcanisation and physical properties of final product. 7th National Chemical Engineering Congress, Eskisehir.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    MARKOVIC M. G., CHOUDHURY N. R., DIMOPOULOS M., MATISONS J. G. (2000) Weatherability of coated EPDM rubber compound by controlled uv irradiation. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 69, 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    QUANLIN Z., XIAOGANG L., JIN G. (2007) Aging of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer in artificial weathering environment. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 92, 1841–1846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    THERIAS S. M., FANTON E., TOMER N. S., RANA S., SINGH R. P., GARDETTE J. L. (2006) Photooxidation of vulcanized EPDM/ montmorillonite nanocomposites. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 91, 3033–3039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    KUMAR B., RANA S., SINGH R. P. (2007) Photo-oxidation of EPDM/layered double hydroxides composites: Influence of layered hydroxides and stabilizers. Express Polym. Let., 1(11), 748–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    JESTIN F. D., LACOSTE J., OUDIN N. B., CARDINET C., LEMAIRE J. (2000) Photo-, thermal and natural ageing of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber used in automotive applications. Influence of carbon black, crosslinking and stabilizing agents. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 67, 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    WYPYCH G., FAULKNER T. (1999) Weathering of plastics. Plastic Design Library, Norwich, NY, 1–15.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    FELDMAN, D. (2002) Polymer weathering: Photo-oxidation. J. Polym. Environ., 10(4).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    FRITSCHER C., MATER J. (1994) Degradable polymers. Int. J. Mater. Product Technol., 96(4), 482–495.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    CROWDER, J. R. (1980) Durability of building materials and components. ASTM STP 691, ASTM, Philadelphia, 811–829.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    BLAGA, A. (1980) Durability of building materials and compounds. ASTM STP 691, ASTM, Philadelphia, 827–837.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    MCCRUM N. G., BUCKLEY C. P., BUCKNALL C. B. (1988) Principles of polymer engineering. Oxford Sci., New York, 358.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    KURUMADA T., OHSAWA H., YAMAZAKI T. (1987) Synergism of hindered amine light stabilizers and UV-absorbers. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 19(3), 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    SCOTT, G. (1985) Developments in the photo-oxidation and photo-stabilisation of polymers. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 10(2), 97–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DIKMENKUCUK S., GERENGI H., GUNER Y. (2018) Effect of ultraviolet stabilizers on rubber-based automotive sealing profiles. Duzce University J. Sci. Technol., 66(1), 240–253.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    BASF (2015) Plastic Additives. Technical Information, 1–2.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DELOR F., OUDIN N. B., DUTEURTRE X., CARDINET C., LEMAIRE J., LACOSTE J. (1998) Oxidation of rubbers analysed by HATR/IR spectroscopy. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 62, 395–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DIJKHUIS K. A. J., NOORDERMEER J. W. M., DIERKES W. K. (2009) The relationship between crosslink system, network structure and material properties of carbon black reinforced EPDM. Eur. Polym. J., 45, 3302–3312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    ISMAIL H., PASBAKHSH P., FAUZI M. N. A., BAKAR A. A. (2008) Morphological, thermal and tensile properties of halloysite nanotubes filled ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) nanocomposites. Polym. Testing, 27, 841–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    ISMAIL H., SHAARI S. M. (2010) Curing characteristics, tensile-properties and morphology of palm ash/halloysite nanotubes/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) hybrid composites. Polym. Testing, 29, 872–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Malaysian Rubber Board 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringDuzce UniversityDuzceTurkey
  2. 2.Research and Development CenterStandard Profile CorporationTurkey

Personalised recommendations