Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 202–206 | Cite as

Video Lottery Terminal Access and Gambling Among High School Students in Montréal

  • Dana Helene WilsonEmail author
  • Jason Gilliland
  • Nancy A. Ross
  • Jeffery Derevensky
  • Rina Gupta
Article

Abstract

Background: Gambling is a risky behaviour that involves uncertain financial outcomes, can be addictive, and has been associated with strongly adverse social and public health outcomes. We wanted to assess whether socio-economic and gambling-related-opportunity environments of neighbourhoods affected the uptake of video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling among Montréal youth.

Methods: Spatial and statistical analyses were conducted to examine geographical patterns of neighbourhood socio-economic conditions, VLT sites (n=407), and high school locations (n=305) within the Montréal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). VLT concentration within high school neighbourhoods was measured to examine how the number of VLT opportunities varies according to socio-economic status of the school neighbourhood. A student survey was analyzed using logistic regression analysis to explore the role of individual (student) characteristics and environmental (neighbourhood) characteristics in predicting the VLT gambling behaviours reported among a sample (n=1206) of high school students.

Results: Video lottery gambling opportunities are more prevalent near schools located in socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods compared with schools located in more affluent neighbourhoods. The principal individual risk factors for VLT gambling were shown to be male sex, peer VLT-use, substance use, as well as the after-school routines of youth.

Interpretation: The spatial distribution of VLTs reflects local geographies of socio-economic disadvantage and may have a pronounced impact on students attending schools in lower income neighbourhoods, especially those with individual risk factors. Efforts to reduce gambling-related public health costs may want to take into account the socio-spatial distribution of gambling opportunities, particularly in the local environments that youth frequent.

MeSH terms

Adolescent behaviour gambling risk-taking social conditions school characteristics video lottery terminals (VLTs) 

Résumé

Contexte: Le jeu est un comportement très risqué dont les résultats financiers sont incertains, qui peut être accrocheur et qu’on a associé avec des résultats fortement indésirables pour la santé sociale et publique. Nous voulions déterminer si le contexte socioéconomique et l’environnement qui offre des possibilités reliées aux jeux de hasard dans les quartiers avaient un effet sur l’utilisation des appareils de loterie vidéo (ALV) chez les adolescents de Montréal.

Méthodologie: Nous avons procédé à des analyses spatiales et statistiques pour déterminer les tendances géographiques de la conjoncture socioéconomique des quartiers, les sites d’ALV (n=407) et l’emplacement des écoles secondaires (n=305) dans la région métropolitaine de recensement (RMR) de Montréal. Nous avons mesuré la concentration d’ALV dans les quartiers des écoles secondaires afin de déterminer comment le nombre de possibilités offertes par les ALV varie en fonction de la situation socioéconomique du quartier où se trouve l’école. Nous avons analysé les résultats d’un sondage mené auprès des élèves en procédant à une analyse de régression logistique afin d’étudier le rôle des caractéristiques individuelles (étudiant) et environnementales dans la prédiction des comportements de jeu aux ALV déclarés dans un échantillon (n=1 206) d’élèves du secondaire.

Résultats: Les possibilités de jeu par appareils de loterie vidéo sont plus prévalentes à proximité des écoles situées dans des quartiers démunis sur le plan socioéconomique comparativement à celles qui se trouvent dans des quartiers plus riches. On a démontré que les principaux facteurs de risque individuels de jeu aux ALV étaient le sexe masculin, l’utilisation d’ALV par des pairs, la consommation de substances, ainsi que les habitudes des adolescents après les heures de cours.

Interprétation: La répartition spatiale des ALV reflète les caractéristiques géographiques locales du désavantage socioéconomique et peuvent avoir un effet prononcé sur les élèves qui fréquentent des écoles de quartiers à revenu plus faible, et en particulier sur ceux qui présentent des facteurs de risque individuels. Les efforts visant à réduire les coûts de la santé publique reliés aux jeux de hasard peuvent tenir compte de la répartition sociospatiale des possibilités de jeu de hasard, et en particulier de l’environnement local fréquenté par les adolescents.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Korn D. Expansion of gambling in Canada: Implications for health and social policy. CMAJ 2000;163(1):61–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shaffer J, Korn D. Gambling and related mental disorders: A public health analysis. Annu Rev Public Health 2002;23:171–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Derevensky JL, Gupta R, Messerlian C, Gillespie M. Youth gambling problems: A need for responsible social policy. In: Derevensky JL, Gupta R (Eds.), Gambling Problems in Youth, Theoretical and Applied Perspectives. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2004;231–52.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Welte J, Wieczorek W, Barnes G, Tidwell M, Hoffman J. The relationship of ecological and geographic factors to gambling behavior and pathology. J Gambl Stud 2004;20(4):405–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Epp J. Achieving Health for All: A Framework for Health. Ottawa, ON: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Evans R, Barer M, Marmor T (Eds.). Why are Some People Healthy and Others Not?: The Determinants of Health of Populations. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yen IH, Syme SL. The social environment and health: A discussion of the epidemiologic literature. Annu Rev Public Health 1999;20:287–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pickett KE, Pearl M. Multilevel analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic context and health outcomes: A critical review. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55(2):111–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Macintyre S, Ellaway A, Cummins S. Place effects on health: How can we conceptualise, operationalise and measure them? Soc Sci Med 2002;55(1):125–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bradizza C, Stasiewicz P. Introduction to the Special Issue “Addictions in Special Populations.” Addict Behav 1999;24(6):737–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hedberg V, Bracken C, Stashwick C. Long-term consequences of adolescent health behaviours: Implications for adolescent health services. Adolesc Med 1999;10(1):137–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brooks-Gunn J. Children in families in communities: Risk and intervention in the Bronfenbrenner tradition. In: Moen P, Elder G, Lüscher K (Eds.), Examining Lives in Context: Perspectives on the Ecology of Human Development. New York: American Psychological Association, 2001.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morrongiello B, Dawber T. Identifying factors that relate to children’s risk-taking decisions. Can J Behav Sci 2004;36(4):255–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canadian Institute for Health Information. Canadian Population Health Initiative: Improving the Health of Young Canadians. Available online at: http://secure.cihi.ca/cihi-web/dispPage.jsp?cw_page=PG_380_E&cw_topic=380&cw_rel=AR_1217_E (Accessed October 23, 2005).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Derevensky J, Gupta R, Cloppa G. A developmental perspective of gambling behaviour in children and adolescents. J Gambl Stud 1996;12(1):49–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gupta R, Derevensky J. Adolescent gambling behaviour: A prevalence study and examination of the correlates associated with problem gambling. J Gambl Stud 1998;14(4):319–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Felsher J, Derevensky J, Gupta R. Parental influences and social modeling of youth lottery participation. J Community Appl Soc Psychol 2003;13:361–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stinchfield R. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with youth gamblign and problem gambling. In: Derevensky JL, Gupta R (Eds.), Gambling Problems in Youth, Theoretical and Applied Perspectives. New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2004.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shaffer HJ, Hall MN. Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behaviour in the United States and Canada. Can J Public Health 2001;92(3):168–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Derevensky J, Gupta R, Winters K. Prevalence rates of youth gambling problems: Are the current rates inflated? J Gambl Stud 2003;19:405–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jacobs DF. Youth gambling in North America: Long term trends and future prospects. In: Derevensky JL, Gupta R (Eds.), Gambling Problems in Youth, Theoretical and Applied Perspectives. New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, 2004.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stinchfield R, Winters K. Gambling and problem gambling among youths. Ann Am Acad Political Soc Sci 1998;556:172–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poulin C. Problem gambling among adolescent students in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. J Gambl Stud 2000;16(1):53–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schissel B. Betting against youth: The effects of socioeconomic marginality on gambling among young people. Youth & Society 2001;32(4):473–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Doiron JP, Mazer DB. Gambling with video lottery terminals. Qual Health Res 2001;11(4):631–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Turner N, Horbay R. How do slot machines and other electronic gambling machines actually work? J Gambling Issues 2004;11.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loto-Québec. La Societe des lotteries video du Québec, Inc.: Some Figures. 2005. Available online at: www.slvq.com/web/jsp/MainPage.jsp?Params=Y.US.50801.0 (Accessed on August 8, 2005).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gilliland J, Ross NA. Opportunities for video lottery terminal gambling in Montréal: An environmental analysis. Can J Public Health 2005;96(1):55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Byrne A, Gupta R, Derevensky J. Internet gambling in Canadian youth. Annual meeting of the National Council on Problem Gambling, Phoenix, June, 2004.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brown K. Environmental Determinants of Health: A study of problem gambling in Montreal. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, 2005.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Byrne A. An exploratory analysis of internet gambling among youth. Unpublished master’s thesis, Department of Educational & Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dana Helene Wilson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jason Gilliland
    • 2
  • Nancy A. Ross
    • 1
  • Jeffery Derevensky
    • 3
  • Rina Gupta
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  3. 3.School of Applied Child Psychology, Department of Educational and Counselling PsychologyMcGill UniversityCanada

Personalised recommendations