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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 96, Supplement 3, pp S22–S29 | Cite as

Les déterminants de la saine alimentation chez les enfants et les jeunes

  • Jennifer P. TaylorEmail author
  • Susan Evers
  • Mary McKenna
Article
  • 86 Downloads

Résumé

Le présent article traite de l’état actuel des connaissances ainsi que des lacunes observées au niveau de la recherche portant sur les déterminants de la saine alimentation chez les enfants et les jeunes, c.-à-d. les déterminants d’ordre individuel et collectif qui influencent la saine alimentation. La définition suivante de la saine alimentation a été retenue: «des habitudes ou comportements alimentaires qui favorisent l’amélioration ou le maintien de la santé». Nous avons consulté les banques de données pertinentes à la recherche d’articles traitant d’au moins un facteur relatif à la saine alimentation chez les enfants ou les jeunes, publiés entre janvier 1 992 et mars 2003. Certains facteurs collectifs, entre autres des facteurs d’ordre familial, de même que les aliments disponibles dans l’environnement physique (domicile, école et établissements de restauration rapide) exercent une influence significative sur la saine alimentation chez les enfants et les jeunes. Les médias, particulièrement la télévision, exercent parfois une influence énorme qui peut même éclipser celle de la famille. Parmi les facteurs individuels, mentionnons les connaissances, les attitudes et les préférences alimentaires, seules ces dernières ayant été identifiées en tant que déterminant important de la saine alimentation, à la fois chez les enfants et les adolescents. Bien que cet examen nous ait permis d’identifier une quantité importante d’études scientifiques relatives aux déterminants de la saine alimentation chez les enfants et les jeunes, très peu d’études ont été menées au Canada. En effet, seuls certains déterminants ont été examinés de quelque façon que ce soit par des chercheurs canadiens, à savoir les facteurs économiques qui influencent la sécurité alimentaire, le contenu des messages médiatiques en matière de nutrition et les problèmes entourant les flaveurs, la néophobie et les préférences alimentaires. Notre examen nous a également permis de dégager les principales priorités de recherche en matière de déterminants de la saine alimentation et de surveillance des comportements alimentaires au Canada.

Mots clés

saine alimentation enfant adolescent facteurs 

Determinants of Healthy Eating in Children and Youth

Abstract

This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as “eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health.” Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified.

MeSH terms

Eating child adolescent factors 

Supplementary material

41997_2005_BF03405197_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (118 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 121 KB.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer P. Taylor
    • 1
    Email author
  • Susan Evers
    • 2
  • Mary McKenna
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Family and Nutritional SciencesUniversity of Prince Edward IslandCharlottetownCanada
  2. 2.Department of Family Relations and Applied NutritionUniversity of CuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.Faculty of EducationUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

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