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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 96, Supplement 3, pp S8–S15 | Cite as

Les déterminants de la saine alimentation au Canada: Aperçu et synthèse

  • Kim D. RaineEmail author
Article
  • 28 Downloads

Résumé

Le présent article traite des interactions complexes observées au niveau des divers déterminants de la saine alimentation, dans une optique de santé de la population. Nous examinerons l’état actuel des connaissances à l’égard des déterminants de la saine alimentation à partir des catégories suivantes: 1) les déterminants individuels des choix alimentaires personnels et 2) les déterminants collectifs, à savoir a) les déterminants environnementaux en tant que contexte entourant les comportements alimentaires et b) les politiques publiques en tant que créatrices d’environnements favorables à la saine alimentation. Une synthèse de la littérature scientifique a révélé que les déterminants individuels des choix alimentaires (état physiologique, préférences alimentaires, connaissances en nutrition, perceptions de la saine alimentation et facteurs psychologiques) pouvaient expliquer en partie le comportement alimentaire, mais qu’ils ne pouvaient l’expliquer totalement, étant donné que ce comportement est fortement influencé par le contexte. On entend par déterminants collectifs du comportement alimentaire, une vaste gamme de facteurs contextuels, à savoir l’environnement interpersonnel composé de la famille et des pairs, l’environnement physique qui détermine la disponibilité des aliments et leur accessibilité, l’environnement économique dans lequel les aliments sont avant tout des produits mis en marché dans une optique de profit et enfin l’environnement social qui inclut à la fois le statut social (revenu, niveau d’instruction et sexe) et le milieu culturel. Tous ces déterminants de la saine alimentation peuvent structurer les choix alimentaires de façon plus ou moins consciente. On sait que l’adoption de politiques peut influencer fortement de multiples environnements, mais on comprend encore mal le processus d’intervention nécessaire à l’échelle macroscopique et le véritable impact des différentes interventions sur la promotion de la saine alimentation. De nouvelles études s’imposent sur les déterminants collectifs des choix alimentaires et le contexte politique entourant la promotion de la saine alimentation. En s’efforçant de mieux comprendre les multiples contextes entourant la saine alimentation, dans une optique de promotion de la santé de la population, on pourra dégager des priorités de recherche et concevoir des stratégies d’intervention en matière de promotion de la saine alimentation.

Mots clés

nutrition promotion de la santé santé publique environnement social politiques visant des populations 

Determinants of Healthy Eating in Canada: An Overview and Synthesis

Abstract

This article uses a population health perspective to examine the complex set of interactions among the determinants of healthy eating. An overview of current knowledge on determinants of healthy eating was organized as follows: 1) individual determinants of personal food choices and 2) collective determinants, including a) environmental determinants as the context for eating behaviours and b) public policies as creating supportive environments for healthy eating. A conceptual synthesis of the literature revealed that individual determinants of personal food choice (physiological state, food preferences, nutritional knowledge, perceptions of healthy eating and psychological factors) are necessary, but not sufficient, to explain eating behaviour, which is highly contextual. Collective determinants of eating behaviour include a wide range of contextual factors, such as the interpersonal environment created by family and peers, the physical environment, which determines food availability and accessibility, the economic environment, in which food is a commodity to be marketed for profit, and the social environment, in which social status (income, education and gender) and cultural milieu are determinants of healthy eating that may be working “invisibly” to structure food choice. Policy is a powerful means of mediating multiple environments. There are gaps in our understanding of the process of intervening in macro-level environments and the impact of such interventions on the promotion of healthy eating. Collective determinants of food choice and policy contexts for promoting healthy eating, therefore, require investment in research. Applying a population health promotion lens to understanding the multiple contexts influencing healthy eating provides insight into prioritizing research and action strategies for the promotion of healthy eating.

MeSH terms

Nutrition health promotion public health social environment population policy 

Supplementary material

41997_2005_BF03405195_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (106 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 108 KB.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Health Promotion StudiesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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