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Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 89, Supplement 1, pp S47–S53 | Cite as

Les effets de l’exposition à la pollution atmosphérique sur la santé des enfants

  • M. RaizenneEmail author
  • R. Dales
  • R. Burnett
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Selon les observations de nombreuses études, l’exposition à la pollution actuelle de l’air extérieur ferait augmenter la morbidité respiratoire chez les enfants. Les enfants asthmatiques, et ceux qui présentent des symptômes d’asthme sans que la maladie ait été diagnostiquée, sont jugés les plus susceptibles de souffrir d’effets nocifs immédiats ou à long terme sur leur santé. Bon nombre de polluants de l’air extérieur pénètrent facilement à l’intérieur. La qualité de l’air intérieur peut se détériorer rapidement en présence d’émissions persistantes et incontrôlées, et si l’on réduit le rapport ventilation-échange d’air. On estime que les enfants passent 90 % de leur temps à l’intérieur, notamment dans les bâtiments scolaires, les véhicules et les lieux publics couverts. La fumée de tabac ambiante, un contaminant que l’on sait persister dans l’air intérieur, a des effets néfastes sur la santé des enfants de tout âge. On reconnaît de plus en plus que l’humidité non contrôlée du milieu intérieur accroît de façon considérable le risque de morbidité respiratoire chez les enfants. Les preuves que les polluants atmosphériques, seuls ou combinés à d’autres facteurs de l’environnement, provoquent des effets nocifs chez les enfants et adolescents asthmatiques et non asthmatiques semblent irréfutables.

Air Pollution Exposures and Children–s Health

Abstract

The evidence from a large number of studies indicates that exposures to current outdoor air pollution increase respiratory morbidity in children. Children with asthma, and those with asthma-like symptoms but without a diagnosis of asthma, are considered to be at highest risk of experiencing shortterm and/or longer-term adverse health effects. Many outdoor air pollutants readily penetrate indoors. Indoor air quality can deteriorate quickly when persistent and uncontrolled emissions occur and the ventilation/air exchange rate is reduced. It has been estimated that children spend 90% of their time indoors, including in school buildings, vehicles and public indoor environments. Environmental tobacco smoke is a well-recognized persistent indoor air contaminant with adverse health effects in children of all ages. Uncontrolled moisture in the indoor environment is increasingly recognized to significantly increase the risk of respiratory morbidity in children. The evidence that air pollutants singly and in combination with other environmental factors elicit adverse health responses in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children and adolescents, appears irrefutable.

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Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Direction de l’hygiène du milieuCanada

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