Advertisement

Canadian Journal of Public Health

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 287–291 | Cite as

Factors Associated with Maintenance of Regular Condom Use Among Single Heterosexual Adults

A Longitudinal Study
  • Gaston Godin
  • Hélène Gagnon
  • Léo-Daniel Lambert
Article

Abstract

Objective

The aims of this study were to describe behavioural and psychosocial characteristics of single heterosexuals towards regular condom use, and to identify factors associated with the maintenance of this behaviour over time.

Method

A cohort of 179 single heterosexual adults (83 men and 96 women, mean age: 32 years) was followed over a period of 2 years. The data were collected, by phone interviews, at baseline and 1 and 2 years later. The phone numbers were generated using a random digit strategy.

Results

The following changes were observed: over time fewer people were sexually active, but those who were, reported more often having had more than one sexual partner. No significant change was observed regarding condom use. The psychosocial variables remained stable during the study period. To have a favourable intention was the main factor associated with maintenance of condom use. Having had a STD, personal normative beliefs and positive attitude were also associated with regular condom use.

Discussion

Promotion strategies should highlight the importance of acting as a responsible person, reinforce the advantages of using condoms, and select strategies that favour the implementation of intention of using condoms.

Résumé

Objectifs

Cette étude vise dans un premier temps à décrire les caractéristiques comportementales et psychosociales des adultes hétérosexuels et célibataires au regard de l’usage régulier du condom, et dans un deuxième temps à définir les facteurs associés au maintien de son usage dans le temps.

Méthode

Une cohorte de 179 adultes hétérosexuels et célibataires (83 hommes et 96 femmes, âge moyen: 32 ans) a été suivie sur une période de deux ans. Les données ont été recueillies, par le biais d’entrevues téléphoniques, à l’entrée dans l’étude et un et deux ans plus tard. Les numéros de téléphone ont été générés à partir d’une liste aléatoire de chiffres.

_

Les changements suivants sont observés dans le temps: bien que moins nombreux à être actifs sexuellement, ceux qui l’ont été déclarent plus souvent avoir plus d’un partenaire sexuel. Aucun changement significatif n’est observé au regard de l’usage du condom. Les caractéristiques psychosociales sont demeurées stables dans le temps. Avoir une intention favorable est le principal facteur associé au maintien de l’usage régulier du condom. Avoir déjà eu une MTS, les convictions personnelles et une attitude positive y sont aussi associés.

Discussion

Les approches de promotion de l’usage du condom devraient rappeler l’importance d’agir de manière responsable et les avantages d’utiliser un condom. On sélectionnera aussi des stratégies qui favorisent la mise à exécution des intentions.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. The World Health Report 1997. Geneva, Switzerland, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Health Canada. The Canadian Strategy on HIV/AIDS. Moving Forward Together. Ottawa, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    MSSS. Stratégie québécoise de lutte contre les MTS. Orientations 2000–2002. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec, 2000.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Health Canada. Canadian STD Guidelines, 1998 Edition. Ottawa: Division of STD Prevention and Control, Health Protection Branch, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Health Canada. HIV/AIDS Epi Update. Ottawa: Bureau of HIV/AIDS, STD and TB Update Series, Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, 1998.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parent R, Alary M. Analyse des cas de chlamy-diose, de gonorrhée, d’infection par le virus de l’hépatite B et de syphilis déclarés au Québec par année civile (1994-1998). Québec: Centre québécois de coordination sur le sida. MSSS, Gouvernement du Québec, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richardson H, Franco E, Pintos J. Determinants of low-risk and high-risk cervical human papillo-ma virus infections in Montreal University students. Sex Transm Dis 2000;27(2):79–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siegel D, Golden E, Washington A. Prevalence and correlates of herpes simplex infections: The population-based AMEN study. JAMA 1992;286:1702–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Catania JA, Binson D, Dolcini MM, Stall R, Choi K, Pollack LM, et al. Risk factors for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases and prevention practices among US heterosexual adults: Changes from 1990 to 1992. Am J Public Health 1995;85(11):1492–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carey RF, Herman WA, Retta SM, Rinaldi JE, German BA, Athey TW. Effectiveness of latex condoms as a barrier to human immunodeficiency virus-sized particles under conditions of simulated use. Sex Transm Dis 1992;19(4):230–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sheeran P, Abraham C, Orbel S. Psychosocial correlates of heterosexual condom use: A meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 1999;125(1):90–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choi KH, Catania JA. Changes in multiple sexual partnerships, HIV testing and condom use among US heterosexuals 18 to 49 years of age, 1990 and 1992. Am J Public Health 1996;86:554–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kusseling FS, Shapiro MF, Greenberg JM, Wenger NS. Understanding why heterosexual adults do not practice safer sex: A comparison of two samples. AIDS Educ Prev 1996;8(3):247–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guiguet M, Lepont F, Retel O, Valleron AJ. Changes in HIV behavior among french heterosexuals: Patterns of sexual monogamy and condom use between 1988 and 1991. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1994;7(12):1290–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Otis J. Santé sexuelle et prévention des MTS et de l’infection au VIH: bilan d’une décennie de recherche au Québec auprès des adolescents et adolescentes et des jeunes adultes. Québec: Direction générale de la planification et de l’évaluation. Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Health Canada. Sexual risk behaviour of Canadians. Ottawa: Bureau of HIV/AIDS, STD and TB Update Series, Centre for Prevention and Control, 1998.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chequer P, Marin BV, Paiva L, Hudes ES, Piazza T, Rodrigues L, et al. AIDS and condoms in Brasilia: A telephone survey. AIDS Educ Prev 1997;9(5):472–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maticka-Tyndale E, Godin G, LeMay G, Adrien A, Singer SM, Willms D, et al. Les communautés ethnoculturelles canadiennes face au sida: vue d’ensemble et résumé des résultats de la phase III de l’enquête. Rev can santé publique 1996;87(suppl. 1):S42–S48.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Conway B, Cameron W, Plummer FA, Ronald AR. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection-Strategies for prevention. Can J Infect Dis 1991;2(1):30–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Org Behav and Hum Dec Proc 1991;50:179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fishbein M, Ajzen I. Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1975.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 1980.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 1977;84(2):191–215.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Manstead A, Parker D. Evaluating and extending the theory of planned behavior. European Review of Social Psychology 1995;6:69–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Raats MM, Shepherd R, Sparks P. Including moral dimensions of choice within the structure of the theory of planned behavior. J Appl Soc Psychol 1995;25(6):484–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Godin G, Maticka-Tyndale E, Adrien A, Mason-Singer S, Willms D, Cappon P, et al. Cross-cultural testing of three social cognitive theories: An application to condom use. J Appl Soc Psychol 1996;26(17):1556–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Triandis HC. Interpersonal Behavior. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Godin G, Kok G. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A review of its applications to health-related behaviors. Am J Health Prom 1996;11(2):87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Middlestadt SE, Bhattacharyya K, Rosenbaum J, Fishbein M, Shepherd M. The use of theory-based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: Formative research for CDC’s prevention marketing initiative. Public Health Rep 1996;3(suppl. 1):18–27.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liang K, Zeger L. Longitudinal data analysis generalized linear models. Biometrika 1986;78(1):13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Horton N, Bebchuk J, Jones C, Lipsitz S, Catalano P, Zahner G, et al. Goodness-of-fit for GEE: An example with mental health service utilization. Statistics in Medecine 1999;18(2):213–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gollwitzer PM. Implementation intentions, strong effects of simple plans. Am Psychol 1999;54(7):493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Santé-Québec. Enquête québécoise sur les facteurs de risque associés au sida et aux autres MTS: la population des 15–29 ans. Québec: Ministère de la santé et des services sociaux, Gouvernement du Québec, 1992.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Morrill AC, Ickovics JR, Golubchikov VV, Beren SE, Rodin J. Safer sex: Social and psychological predictors of behavioral maintenance and change among heterosexual women. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996;64(4):819–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morrison DM, Gillmore MR, Baker SA. Determinants of condom use among high-risk heterosexual adults: A test of the Theory of Reasoned Action. J Appl Soc Psychol 1995;25(8):651–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weinstock HS, Lindan C, Bolan G, Kegeles SM, Hearst N. Factors associated with condom use in a high-risk heterosexual population. Sex Transm Dis 1993;20(1):14–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wulfert E, Wan CK. Safer sex intentions and condom use viewed from a health belief, reasoned action and social cognitive perspective. J Sex Res 1995;32(4):299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Catania JA, Gibson DR, Chitwood DD, Coates TJ. Methodological problems in AIDS behavioral research: Influences on measurement error and participation bias in studies of sexual behavior. Psychol Bull 1990;108:339–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Canadian Public Health Association 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaston Godin
    • 1
  • Hélène Gagnon
    • 1
  • Léo-Daniel Lambert
    • 1
  1. 1.Laval University Research Group on Behaviours in the Field of Health, Faculty of NursingLaval UniversityQuebecCanada

Personalised recommendations