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Hormones

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 16–23 | Cite as

Thyroid involvement in hepatitis C — Associated mixed cryoglobulinemia

  • Poupak Fallahi
  • Silvia Martina Ferrari
  • Dilia Giuggioli
  • Andreina Manfredi
  • Caterina Mancusi
  • Silvia Fabiani
  • Marco Centanni
  • Santino Marchi
  • Clodoveo Ferri
  • Alessandro Antonelli
Review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The prevalence and clinical features of thyroid involvement in patients with hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC + HCV) have been reviewed.

DESIGN

A PubMed Medline search was conducted through December 2011 to identify all studies that reported thyroid involvement in MC + HCV patients. Reference lists of the papers initially detected were manually searched to identify additional relevant reports. Studies had to contain sufficient and clear information to be included.

RESULTS

In MC+HCV patients, the following thyroid autoimmune abnormalities were significantly more frequent than in controls: high levels of serum anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibody (AbTPO); high levels of serum AbTPO and/or anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody; humoral and ultrasonographical signs of thyroid autoimmunity (35% vs 16%); prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (11% vs 2%). Also, the prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer has been found higher in MC + HCV patients than in controls, in particular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. The involvement of T helper 1 immunity and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) may be the pathogenetic basis of the association between MC + HCV and thyroid autoimmunity.

CONCLUSION

These results show a high prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients with MC + HCV and point to the need for careful monitoring of thyroid function in these patients.

Key words

Autoimmunity Chemokines Cryoglobulinemia Hepatitis C Hypothyroidism Thyroid neoplasms 

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Copyright information

© Hellenic Endocrine Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poupak Fallahi
    • 1
  • Silvia Martina Ferrari
    • 1
  • Dilia Giuggioli
    • 2
  • Andreina Manfredi
    • 2
  • Caterina Mancusi
    • 1
  • Silvia Fabiani
    • 1
  • Marco Centanni
    • 3
  • Santino Marchi
    • 4
  • Clodoveo Ferri
    • 2
  • Alessandro Antonelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medical, Surgical, Maternal, Pediatric and Adult SciencesUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies“Sapienza” University of RomeLatinaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Translational Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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