Interceram - International Ceramic Review

, Volume 66, Issue 6, pp 226–231 | Cite as

Geopolymer Cements from Slag, Fly Ash and Silica Fume Activated with Sodium Hydroxide and Water Glass

  • H. H. M. DarweeshEmail author
Building Materials


Three different types of geopolymer cement from granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), pulverized fly ash (FA) and silisa fume (SF) were prepared. The cements were activated by sodium hydroxide (SH) and water glass (WG) which were dissolved in mixing water. The hydration characteristics of the different cement mixes were measured including water of consistency (W/C) ratio, setting times, bulk density, apparent porosity, bound water content and compressive strength. The W/C ratio increased as the amount of NaOH increased. It also increased with addition of either FA or SF. The bound water content of the alkali-activated GBFS cement pastes gradually increased at all hydration times. The bulk density improved whilst apparent porosity declined. This had a positive effect on compressive strength. The results demonstrated that 90% GBFS and 10% Silica Fume activated by 1.0 mol/kg water glass and 3.0 M NaOH had reasonable and satisfactory hydration properties and was the most appropriate binding material. It is a sustainable binding material that can be successfully used as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement.


geopolymer cement slag fly ash silica fume sodium hydroxide water glass setting strength 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Allahverdi, A., Mehrpour, K., Kani, E.N.: Taftan pozzolan-based geopolymer cement. Inter. J. Engi. Sci. 19 (2008) 31–35Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Pacheco-Torgal, F., Abdollahnejad, Z., Camões, A.F., Jamshidi, M., Ding, Y.: Durability of alkali-activated binders: A clear advantage over Portland cement or an unproven issue? Constr. Build. Mater. 30 (2012) 400–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    El-Didamony, H., Darweesh, H.H.M., Mostafa, R.M.: Characteristics of pozzolanic cement pastes. Part I: Physico-mechanical properties. Silicate Industriels 73 (2008) [11–12] 193–200Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Mehta, P.K.: Advancements in concrete technology. Concr. Intern. 4 (1999) [3] 69–76Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Darweesh, H.H.M.: Effect of combination of some pozzolanic wastes on the properties of Portland cement pastes. IIC L’industria italiana del Cemento 808 (2005) 298–311Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Thalcec, E., Zellic, J.: Automation technology and analytic — product review. Zement-Kalk-Gips 40 (1987) 574–579Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Erdogdu, K., Turker, P.: Characteristics of fly ash and its effects on the compressive strength. Cem. Concr. Res. 28 (1998) 1217–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Shanahan, N., Zayed, A.: Cement composition and sulphate attach. Cem. Concr. Res. 37 (2007) [4] 618–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Pandy, S.P., Singh, A.K, Sharma, R.I., Tiwari, A.K.: Studies on high performance blended / multiblended cements and their durability characteristics. Cem. Concr. Res. 33 (2003) 1433–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Ghosh, S.N.; Josh, D.M.; Chansa, S., Vaishnov, H.: Studies on activation of slag cement. Proc. 10th Intern. Conf. Chem. Cem., Paris, June 2–7 (1997)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Roy, S., Chanda, S., Bandopadhyay, S.K., Ghosh, S.N.: Investigation of Portland slag cement activated by water glass. Cem. Concr. Res. 28 (1998) [7] 1049–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    ASTM-Standards “Standard test method for normal water of consistency of hydraulic cement”, C187-86, 1993, 148–150Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    ASTM-Standards “Standard test method for setting time of hydraulic cement”, C191-92, 1993, 866–868Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Hewlett, P.C: Lea’s chemistry of cement and concrete. 4th Ed.; John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York (1998) ISBN 978-0750662567Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Neville, A.M.: Properties of concrete. 4th Ed. Longman, Essex (UK) (1995)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    ASTM-Standards “Standard test method for compressive strength of dimension stone”, C170-90, 1993, 828–830Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Keršner, Z., Darweesh, H.H.M., Řoutil, L.: Pastas de cemento con un elevado contenido de escorias activadas alcalinamente con silicato de sodio yˋwater glass. Revista Tecnica Cemento Hormigon 945 (2011) 16–24, ISSN: 0008-8919Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Darweesh, H.H.M.: Utilization of perlite rock in blended cement. Part I: Physicomechanical properties. J. Chem. and Mater. Sci. 2 (2014) [1] 11–12, ISSN 2354-4163Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Darweesh, H.H.M.: Setting, hardening and strength properties of cement pastes with zeolite alone or in combination with slag. Interceram 1 (2012) 52–57Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Darweesh, H.H.M., Abo El-Suoud, M.R.: Setting, hardening and mechanical properties of some cement / agrowaste composites. Part I. Am. J. Mining and Metall. 2 (2014) 232–240Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Darweesh, H.H.M., Abo-El-Suoud M.R.: Quaternary cement composites from industrial byproducts to avoid the environmental pollution. EC-Chemistry 2 (2015) [1] 78–91Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Darweesh, H.H.M.: Black liquor waste as a cement admixture or cement and/or concrete admixtures. Chapter 6 in: Biopolymers and Biotech. Admixtures for Eco Efficient Construction Materials. F. Pacheco-Torgal, V. Ivanov, N. Karak and H. Jonkers (2015) 99–130, ISBN 978-0-08-100209-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Adam, A.: Strength and durability properties of alkali activated slag and fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 202 (2009) 424–431Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Duxson, P., Fernandez-Jimenez, A., Provis, J.L., Lukey, G.C., Palomo, A., van Deventer, J.S.J.: Geopolymer technology: The current state of the Art. Mater. Sci. J. 42 (2007) [9] 2917–2933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Darweesh, H.H.M.: Alkali-activation of slag-rich cement pastes with sodium hydroxide. IIC l’industria italiana del Cemento 826 (2006) 12992–1007Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Khater, H.M.: Wt. Effect of silica fume on the characterization of the geopolymer materials. Inter. J. Adv. Struct. Eng. 5 (2013) [1] 12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Motorwala, A., Shah, V., Kammula, R., Nannapaneni, P., Raijiwala, P.D.B.: Alkali activated fly ash based geopolymer concrete. Inter. J. Emerging Technol. and Adv. Eng. 3 (2013) [1] 159–166Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations