Interceram - International Ceramic Review

, Volume 65, Issue 4–5, pp 146–155 | Cite as

Recommendations for Evaluation of Alternative Raw Materials (ARM’s) in the Manufacturing of Heavy Clay Products

  • F. MödingerEmail author
Ceramics Forum


Economic and environmental concerns have often led to changes in the source materials used for many clay-based brick products. Use of Alternative Raw Materials (ARM’s) as a substitute for traditional source materials is a prime example of this trend. Successful introduction and ongoing use of ARM’s requires effective management of risks, especially those related to source materials and suppliers, process integrity, and potential impacts on end-product quality and environmental emissions. ARM’s can deliver a substantial contribution to the reduction of the environmental impact of the production process. The paper outlines a systematic approach that can be followed to manage processing changes, involving setup of benchmark rules, guidelines and historical data measurements that can be used to evaluate the effects of potential ARM-related changes. Examples are presented describing proper implementation of a benchmark process. End of life scenarios are not considered in this paper.


alternative raw materials substitution clay brick environmental impact benchmarking waste 


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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bressanone Brixen BZItaly

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