Influence of Phosphate-Substituted Flux on Microstructure and Technological Properties of White Porcelain Stoneware Tiles

  • E. El-FadalyEmail author
  • D. M. Ibrahim
Tile & Brick


Calcium phosphate in the range of 3 to 10 mass-% partially substituted soda feldspar in five recipes in an attempt to produce white porcelain stoneware tiles. The added phosphate had a double effect on the behavior of the ceramic body during firing. The penta-valent phosphorous accommodated into the tetrahedron co-ordination of the glass melt and lowered its viscosity, leading to the early dissolution of the primary mullite and the crystallization of acicular secondary mullite, as well as fine grained nano-anorthite grains. The calcium ion played its role in increasing the degree of whiteness of the body.

The addition of 3 to 5 mass-% calcium phosphate was found to improve the degree of whiteness (L*) without compromising the MOR. The addition of 3 mass-% phosphate improved the degree of resistance to abrasion of the tile-body.


porcelain tiles stoneware anorthite mullite phosphate microstructure 


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© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Studies and Research InstituteEl-Sadat City University, MinufiyaEl-Sadat City, MinufiyaEgypt
  2. 2.Ceramic DepartmentNational Research Centre, DokkiCairoEgypt

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