Advertisement

Academic Psychiatry

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 122–132 | Cite as

Postgraduate Psychotherapy Training

Incorporating Findings From the Empirical Literature Into Curriculum Development
  • Priyanthy Weerasekera
Theme Issue: Teaching and Supervising Psychotherapy

Abstract

This article presents a postgraduate psychotherapy training curriculum that incorporates findings from the psychotherapy research literature. Prior training recommendations are reviewed, and selected references from the empirical literature form the basis of the discussion. Past guidelines have not always incorporated findings from this literature. A curriculum is presented as a first step toward making this connection. This curriculum was implemented at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, in the summer of 1995. The psychotherapy research literature can assist psychotherapy coordinators to design curricula that are challenging and that can provide the necessary skills future psychiatrists will need.

Keywords

Family Therapy Academic Psychiatry Consult Clin Psychol Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Garfield SL, Bergin AE: Introduction and historical overview, in Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change, edited by Garfield SL, Bergin AE. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1994, pp. 3–18Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldfried MR, Greenberg LS, Mannar CR: Individual psychotherapy: process and outcome. Ann Rev Psychol 1990; 41:659–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Elkin I, Shea T, Watkins J, et al: National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: general effectiveness of treatments. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46:971–982CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greenberg LS, Pinsoff WM: Process research: current trends and future perspectives, in The Psychotherapeutic Process: A Research Handbook, edited by Greenberg LS, Pinsoff WM. New York, Guilford, 1986, pp. 3–20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stricker G, Gold GR: Comprehensive Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York, Plenum, 1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beck AT, Sokol L, Clark DA, et al: A crossover study of focused cognitive therapy for panic disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1992; 149:778–783CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenberg LS, Watson J: Experiential therapy of depression: differential effects of client-centered relationship conditions and active experiential conditions. Psychotherapy Research (in press)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brom D, Kleber RJ, Defares PB: Brief psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol 1989; 57:607–612CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marmar CR, Mardi JH, Weiss DS, et al: A controlled trial of brief psychotherapy and mutual-help group treatment of conjugal bereavement. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145:300–309Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alexander JF, Holtzworth-Munroe A, Jameson P: Process and outcome of marital and family therapy: research, review, and evaluation, in Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change, edited by Garfield SL, Bergin AE. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1994, pp. 595–630Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frank E, Kupfer DJ, Perel JM: Three-year outcomes for maintenance therapies in recurrent depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47:1093–1099CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hollon SD, Beck AT: Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies, in Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change, edited by Bergin AE, Garfield SL. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1994, pp. 428–466Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rodenhauser P: Psychiatry residency programs: trends in psychotherapy supervision. Am J Psychother 1992; 46:240–249CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brook P: Is psychiatric training still improving? Br J Psychiatry 1990; 157:335–338CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ritchie EC, White R: Cognitive therapy training in U.S. psychiatry residency programs. Academic Psychiatry 1992; 16:90–95CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Altshuler KZ: Whatever happened to intensive psychotherapy? Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147:428–430CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Verhulst J: The psychotherapy curriculum in the age of biological psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry 1991; 15:120–130CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mohl PC, Lomax J, Tasman A, et al: Psychotherapy training for the psychiatrist of the future. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147:7–13CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cameron PM: Psychotherapy training in Canada. Canadian Psychiatric Association Bulletin 1993; 25:21–23Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Truant GS: Teaching for success: training in psychotherapy in the ’90s and beyond. Canadian Psychiatric Association Bulletin 1993; 25:23–26Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Watkins CE: Development of the psychotherapy supervisor: concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses of the supervisor complexity model. Am J Psychother 1993; 47:58–73CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shanfleld SB, Mohl PC, Matthews K, et al: A reliability assessment of the Psychotherapy Supervisory Inventory. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146:1447–2145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Strupp HH, Bergin AE: Some empirical and conceptual bases for coordinated research in psychotherapy: a critical review of issues, trends, and evidence. International Journal of Psychiatry 1969; 7:18–90PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luborsky L, Barber JP, Binder J, et al: Transference-related measures: a new dass based on psychotherapy sessions, in Psychodynamic Treatment Research: A Handbook for Clinical Practice, edited by Miller NE, Luborsky L, Barber JP, et al. New York, Basic Books, 1993, pp. 326–341Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Drozd JF, Goldfried MR: A critical evaluation of the state-of-the-art in psychotherapy outcome research. Psychotherapy 1996; 33:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goldfried MR, Wolfe BE: Psychotherapy practice and research. repairing a strained alliance. Am Psychol 1996; 51:1007–1016CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Horvath AO, Luborsky L: The role of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 1993; 61:573–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beutler LE, Crago M, Arizmendi TG: Therapist variables in psychotherapy process and emotions, in Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change, edited by Bergin AE, Garfield SL. New York, Wiley, 1986, pp. 257–310Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bartholomew K, Horowitz LN: Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a model. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991; 61:226–244CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beutler LE, Machado PP, Engle D, et al: Differential patient x treatment maintenance among cognitive, experiential, and self-directed psychotherapies. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration 1993; 3:15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shanfield SB, Mohl PC, Matthews KL, et al: Quantitative assessment of the behavior of psychotherapy supervisors. Am J Psychiatry 1992; 149:352–357CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shanfleld SB, Matthews KL, Hetherly V: What do excellent psychotherapy supervisors do? Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150:1081–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holloway EL, Neufeldt SA: Supervision: its contributions to treatment efficacy. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995; 2:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baum BE, Gray JJ: Expert modeling, self-observation using videotape, and acquisition of basic therapy skills. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 1992; 23:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baker SD, Daniels TG: Integrating research on the microcounseling program: a meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1989; 36:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chevron ES, Bruce MS. Rounsaville J: Evaluating the clinical skills of psychotherapists. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983; 40:1129–1132CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Goldenberg I, Goldenberg H (eds): Clinical Training and Professional Practice in Family Therapy: An Overview. Pacific Grove, California, Brooks Cole Publishing, 1991Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rounsavffle BJ, O’Malley S, Foley S, et al: Role of manual-guided training in the conduct and efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988; 56:681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Henry WP, Strupp HH, Butler SF, et al: Effects of training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: changes in therapist behavior. J Consult Clin Psychol 1993; 61:434–440CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vallis TM, Shaw BF: The Cognitive Therapy Scale: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1986; 54:381–385CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Piercy F, Laird K, Mohammed Z: Family Therapist Rating Scale. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 1983; 9:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Horvath AO, Greenberg LS: The Working Alliance: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1994Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lambert MJ, Arnold RC: Research and the supervisory process. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 1987; 19:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rogers CR: Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston, MA, Houghton-Mifflin, 1965Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Patterson CH: Empathy, warmth, and genuinness in psychotherapy: a review of reviews. Psychotherapy 1984; 21:34–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Greenberg LS, Rice LN, Elliott R: Facilitating Emotional Change: The Moment-by-Moment Process. New York, Guilford, 1993Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rogers CR: Three Approaches to Psychotherapy: A Description of Client-Centered Therapy. An Interview by Dr. Rogers With a Patient and a Summation of the Effectiveness of the Interview. University Park, PA, University Park. 1964Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Truax CB: A Scale for the rating of accurate empathy, in Therapeutic Relationship and Its Impact, edited by Rogers C. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1967, pp. 555–568Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Luborsky L: Principles of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Manual for Supportive Expressive Treatment. New York, Basic Books, 1984Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Luborsky L, Crits-Christoph P: Understanding Transference: The CCRT Method. New York, Basic Books, 1990Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Barlow DH: Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-Step Treatment Manual. New York, Guilford, 1993Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, et al: Cognitive Therapy for Depression. New York, Guilford, 1979Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hathaway SR, McKinley JC: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Minneapolis, MN, University of Minnesota Press, 1989Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Epstein N, Baldwin LM, Bishop DS: The McMaster Family Assessment Device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 1983; 9:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Klerman GF, Weissman MM, Rounsavalle BJ: Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression. New York, Basic Books, 1984Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Markowitz JC: Teaching interpersonal psychotherapy to psychiatric residents. Academic Psychiatry 1995; 19:167–173CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dunn RL, Schwebel AI: Meta-analytic review of marital therapy outcome research. Journal of Family Psychology 1995; 9:58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Greenberg LS, Johnson SM: Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples. New York, Guilford, 1988Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baucom DH, Epstein N: Cognitive Behavioral Marital Therapy. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1990Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hawton K: Sex Therapy: A Practical Guide. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pinsoff WM, Catherall DR: The integrative psychotherapy alliance: family, couple, and individual therapy scales. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 1986; 12:137–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sank LR, Shaffer CS: A Therapist’s Manual for Cognitive- Behavior Therapy in Groups. New York, Plenum, 1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Craske MG, Barlow DH: Therapist’s Guide for Mastery of Your Anxiety and Panic. Albany, NY, Graywind Publishing, 1990Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dawson D, MacMillan H: Relationship Management of the Borderline Patient. From Understanding to Treatment. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1993Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Heimberg RG, Dodge CS, Hope DA, et al: Cognitive behavior group treatment for social phobia: comparison with a credible placebo control. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1990; 14:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wampler KS: An update of research on the Couple Communication Program. Family Science Review 1990; 3:21–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wachtel PL: Psychoanalysis and Behavior Therapy: Towards an Integration. New York, Basic Books, 1977Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ryle A: Cognitive-Analytic Therapy: Active Participation in Change. Chichester, England, Wiley, 1990Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Weerasekera P: Formulation: a multiperspective model. Can J Psychiatry 1993; 38:351–358CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Weerasekera P, Linder B: Evaluating the effectiveness of the multiperspective grid in teaching psychiatry residents psychotherapy integration. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 23, 1994Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Weerasekera P: Multiperspective Case Formulation: A Step Towards Treatment Integration. Melbourne, FL, Krieger Publishing, 1996Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smith ML, Glass GV, Miller TI: The Benefits of Psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkin University Press, 1980Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academic Psychiatry 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priyanthy Weerasekera
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMcMaster University Medical CenterHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations