European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 32–35 | Cite as

Clinical evaluation of Root ZX II electronic apex locator in primary teeth

  • S. Saritha
  • K. S. UloopiEmail author
  • C. Vinay
  • R. Chandra Sekhar
  • V. V. Rao
Scientific Article


AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of Root ZX II electronic apex locator (EAL) for root canal working length determination in primary teeth. METHODS: Forty primary maxillary incisor teeth were included in the study. Root ZX II EAL was used to determine the electronic working length (EL). The working length obtained with EAL was evaluated using digital radiography with the measuring file set to EL. The samples were categorised into three groups. Group 1 (acceptable): file tip 0–1 mm short of the radiographic apex; Group 2 (short): file tip ≫ 1mm short of the apex and Group 3 (long): file tip beyond the apex. Digital radiographic working length (RL) was derived by adjusting EL to the radiographic apex. The assigned calibrations were tabulated and statistically analysed. RESULTS: Group 1 included 28 out of 40 teeth indicating a clinical accuracy of 70%. Group 2 contained 10 (25%) teeth whereas group 3 had only 2 (5%) teeth. STATISTICS: Pearson correlation coefficient statistical analysis showed a high correlation (r = +0.82; p =s < 0.001) among the groups. CONCLUSION: Root ZX II EAL can be used as a reliable device for obtaining root canal length in primary maxillary incisor teeth.

Key words

Electronic apex locator primary teeth Root ZX II root canal 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angwaravong O, Panitvisai P. Accuracy of electronic apex locator in primary teeth with resorption. Int Endod J 2009; 42:115–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Athar A, Angelopoulos C, Katz JO, Williams KB, Spencer P. Radiographic endodontic working length estimation: comparison of three digital image receptors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008; 106:604–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ebrahim AK, Yoshioka T, Kobayashi C, Suda H. The effects of file size, sodium hypochlorite and blood on the accuracy of Root ZX apex locator in enlarged root canals: an in vitro study. Aust Dent J 2006; 51:153–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elayouti A, Dima E, Ohmer J. Consistency of Apex Locator Function: A clinical Study. J Endod 2009; 35:2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghaemmaghami S, Eberle J, Duperon D. Evaluation of RootZX Apex Locator in primary teeth. Pediatr Dent 2008; 30:496–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldberg F, De Silvio AC, Manfre S, Nastri N. In vitro measurement accuracy of an electronic apex locator in teeth with simulated apical root resorption. J Endod 2002; 28:461–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gordon MPJ, Chandler NP. Electronic apex locators. Int Endod J 2004; 37:408–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoer D, Attin T. The accuracy of electronic working length determination. Int Endod J 2004; 37:125–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Horner K, Shearer AC, Walker A, Wilson NHF. “Radiovisiography”: An initial evaluation. Br Dent J 1990; 168:244–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Katz A, Mass E, Kaufman AY. Electronic apex locator: a useful tool for root canal treatment in the primary dentition. ASDC J Dent Child 1996; 63:414–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaufman AY, Keila S, Yoshpe M. Accuracy of a new apex locator: an in vitro study. Int Endod J 2002; 35:186–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kielbassa AM, Muller U, Munz I, Monting JS. Clinical evaluation of the measuring accuracy of Root ZX in primary teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003; 95:94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Leonardo MR, Silva LAB, Nelson-Filho P, Silva RAB, Raffaini MSGG. Ex vivo evaluation of the accuracy of two electronic apex locators during root canal length determination in primary teeth. Int Endod J 2008; 41:317–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leonardo MR, Da Silva LA, Nelson-Filho P, Da Silva RA, Lucisano MP. In vitro comparative study of conventional radiography and Root ZX apex locator in determining root canal working length. N Y State Dent J 2009; 754:48–51.Google Scholar
  15. Moshonov, Goldberg IS. Apex Locators: Updates and Prospects for the future. Int J Computerized Dent 2004; 7:359–370.Google Scholar
  16. Nelson-Filho P, Lucisano MP, Leonardo MR, da Silva RA, da Silva LA. Electronic working length determination in primary teeth by ProPex and Digital Signal Procession. Aust Endod J. 2010; 36:105–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Odabas ME, Bodur H, Tulunoglu O, Alacam A. Accuracy of an electronic apex locator: A clinical evaluation in primary molars with and without resorption. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2011; 35:255–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ounsi HF, Naaman A. In vitro evaluation of the reliability of the Root ZX electronic apex locator. Int Endod J 1999; 32:120–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pratten DH, McDonald NJ. Comparison of radiographic and electronic working lengths. J Endod 1996; 22:173–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sanabe ME, Basso MD, Goncalves MA, Cordiero RDCL, Santos Pinto L. Digital versus conventional radiography for determination of primary incisor length. Braz J Oral Sci 2009; 8:101–104.Google Scholar
  21. Shabahang S, Goon WW, Gluskin AH. An in vivo evaluation of Root ZX electronic apex locator. J Endod 1996; 22:616–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sim S. Modern endodontic practice: instruments and techniques. Dent Clin North Am 2004; 48:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Subramaniam P, Konde S, Mandanna DK. An in vitro comparison of root canal measurement in primary teeth. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2005; 23:124–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sunada I. New method for measuring the Length of the root canal. J. Dent. Res 1962; 41:375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Versteeg KH, Sanderink GC, Van Ginkel FC, Van der Stelt PF. Estimating distances on direct digital images and conventional radiographs. J Am Dent Assoc 1997; 128:439–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Weiger R, John C, Geigle H, Lost C. An in vitro comparison of two modern apex locators. J Endod 1999; 25:765–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wrbas KT, Ziegler AA, Altenburger MJ, Schirrmeister JF. In vivo comparison of working length determination with two electronic apex locators. Int Endod J 2007; 40:133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Saritha
    • 1
  • K. S. Uloopi
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Vinay
    • 1
  • R. Chandra Sekhar
    • 1
  • V. V. Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Deparment of Paediatric DentistryVishnu Dental CollegeBhimavaramIndia

Personalised recommendations