European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 176–178 | Cite as

dmfs and BMI in pre-school Greek children. An epidemiological study

  • A. TrikaliotisEmail author
  • V. Boka
  • N. Kotsanos
  • V. Karagiannis
  • M. Hassapidou


AIM: This was to investigate the relationship between dental caries (dmfs) and body mass index (BMI) categories in 3–5.5 year old children in Thessaloniki, Greece. METHODS: The study was conducted in 18 municipal day care centres and involved 361 children. The dmfs was determined on site by one calibrated examiner using disposable dental mirrors and a penlight. The height and weight of the children were measured on site by a nutritionist, who grouped them into four BMI categories. STATISTICS: The estimation of the relationship between the BMI and dmfs values was based on a generalised linear model (Poisson log-linear regression) while the sequential Bonferroni method was used for pair-wise comparisons between BMI categories. RESULTS: Mean dmfs values for each BMI category were: 1.02 (SD±2.41 ) for the underweight (n=44), 0.74 (SD±2.24) for the normal weight (n=281), 1.88 (SD±4.28) for the overweight (n=26) and 0.80 (SD±2.53) for the obese (n=10). Overweight children were found to show statistically significant differences in dmfs values compared with both children of normal weight (p<0.001) and those underweight (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: Overweight Greek pre-school children are at higher risk of dental caries.

Key Words

Body mass index dental caries preschool children 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Definition of early childhood caries (ECC). Reference manual 2010;32(6):15, Google Scholar
  2. Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 2008;371:243–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen W, Chen P, Chen SC, et al. Lack of association between obesity and dental caries in three-year-old children. Zhonghua Min Guo Xiao Er Ke Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi 1998; 39:109–111. (in Chinese, English abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, et al. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000;320:1240–1243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cole TJ, Flegal KM, Nicholls D, et al. Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ 2007;335:194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Granville-Garcia AF, de Menezes VA, de Lira PI et al. Obesity and dental caries among preschool children in Brazil. Revsalud pública 2008;10:788–795.Google Scholar
  7. Haugejorden O, Birkeland JM. Evidence for reversal of the caries decline among Norwegian children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2002;12:306–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hong L, Ahmed A, McCunniff M et al. Obesity and dental caries in children aged 2–6 years in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. J Public Health Dent 2008;68:227–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kontogianni MD, Farmaki AE, Vidra N, et al. Associations between life style patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110:215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kopycka-Kedzierawski DT, Auinger P, Billings RJ, et al. Caries status and overweight in 2 to 18-year-old US children: findings from national surveys. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2008; 36:157–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS et al. 2000 CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11. 2002;246:1–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kurth BM, Schaffrath Rosario A. The prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents living in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2007:50:736–743. (in German, English abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Macek MD, Mitola DJ. Exploring the association between overweight and dental caries among US children. Pediatr Dent 2006;28:375–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Manios Y, Costarelli V, Kolotourou M, et al. Prevalence of obesity in preschool Greek children, in relation to parental characteristics and region of residence. BMC Public Health 2007;7:178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Norusis M. SPSS 15. 0 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion, Prentice Hall Inc. NJ 2008.Google Scholar
  16. Oulis C, Athanassouli T, Papagiannoulis L, et al. Oral health status of the Greek population — Oral health program of the Hellenic Dental Association, Athens 2005.Google Scholar
  17. Pitts NB, Boyles J, Nugent ZJ, et al. The dental caries experience of 5-year-old children in England and Wales (2003/4) and in Scotland (2002/3). Surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry. Community Dent Health 2005;22:46–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Poulsen S, Malling Pedersen M. Dental caries in Danish children: 1988–2001. Eur J Paediatr Dent.2002;3:195–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Vadiakas G. Case definition, aetiology and risk assessment of Early Childhood Caries (ECC): A revisited review. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent2008;9:114–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Van Buuren S. Body-mass index cut-off values for underweight in Dutch children. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2004;148:1967–1972. (in Dutch, English abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Van den Hurk K, van Dommelen P, van Buuren S, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands in 2003 compared to 1980 and 1997. Arch Dis Child 2007;92:992–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Gysel D, Govaere E, Verhamme K, et al. Body mass index in Belgian schoolchildren and its relationship with sensitization and allergic symptoms. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009;20:246–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vann WF, Bouwens TJ, Braithwaite AS, et al. The childhood obesity epidemic: A role for pediatric dentists? Pediatr Dent 2005;27:271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Vázquez-Nava F, Vázquez-Rodríguez EM, Saldívar-González AH et al. Association between obesity and dental caries in a group of preschool children in Mexico. J Public Health Dent 2010;70:124–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Vignerova J, Blaha P. 4th, 5th and 6th Nation-Wide Anthropological Survey of Children and adolescents, Czech Republic. National Institute of Public Health: Prague, 2007.Google Scholar
  26. Whelton H, Harrington J, Crowley E, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: results from the North South Survey of children’s height, weight and body mass index, 2002. BMC Public Health 2007;7:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. World Health Organization (WHO). Oral health surveys — Basic Methods.4th edition. Geneva: WHO 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Trikaliotis
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. Boka
    • 1
  • N. Kotsanos
    • 1
  • V. Karagiannis
    • 2
  • M. Hassapidou
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Paediatric Dentistry andAristotle University of Thessaloniki, TEI ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Dept. of Basic Dental SciencesAristotle University of Thessaloniki, TEI ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Dept. of Nutrition and Dietetics, TEI ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations