European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 90–92 | Cite as

Diode laser irradiation and fluoride uptake in human teeth

  • M. C. VitaleEmail author
  • D. Zaffe
  • A. R. Botticell
  • C. Caprioglio


AIM: To evaluate chemically the effects of diode laser on fluoride uptake before and after laser irradiation of enamel surfaces. METHODS: Crowns of 20 sound human teeth were halved and a 3x3mm acid-resistant varnish uncovered window left for: A) no treatment; B) fluoride (Elmex gel); C) diode (fluoride + diode laser); D) diode (diode laser + fluoride). The dental surfaces were analysed using a fluoride ion-selective electrode, in order to evaluate the fluoride treatment in combination with a diode laser. Also, to investigate laser-induced compositional changes (contents in F-) in enamel before/after laser irradiation and topical fluoride application. RESULTS: The mean ±SD of fluoride uptake of teeth of group A was 1.55 ± 0.89 mg/l. Mean fluoride uptake increased sevenfold after fluoride gel treatment: 10.51 ± 3.38 mg/l for group B, up to 15 times after gel and laser treatment: 23.62 ± 3.58 mg/l for group C and was 22.7 ± 4.60 mg/l for group D (diode laser before fluoride application). The Kruskal Wallis test indicated a statistically significant effect of fluoride uptake for all three treatments (p<0.001). The Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test indicated a statistically significant increase of fluoride uptake before and after all treatments, and also a statistically significant difference for laser treatment versus fluoride gel. However, there was no statistically significance difference between laser groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is an enhanced capability of lasers to increase fluoride uptake of enamel and providing. protection to enamel surface from acid attack.

Key words

Enamel fluoride gel laser fluoride electrode 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ana PA, Bachmann L, Zezell DM. Lasers Effects on Enamel for Caries Prevention. Laser Physics 2006;16:865–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chin-Ying SH, Xiaoli G, Jisheng P, Wefel JS. Effects of CO2 laser on fluoride uptake in enamel. J Dent2004;32:161–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bevilacqua FM, Zezell DM, Magnani R, et al. Fluoride uptake and acid resistance of enamel irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Lasers Med Sci 2008;23:141?147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Esteves-Oliveira M, Zezell DM, Meister J, et al. CO2 Laser (10.6 micron) Parameters for caries prevention in dental enamel. Caries Res 2009;43:261–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Featherstone JDB, Fried D, Bitten ER. Mechanism of laser-induced solubility reduction of dental enamel. In: Lasers in Dentistry III, Wigdor HA, Feather-stone JDB, Rechmann P. eds. 2973, pp. 112–116, 1997, Bellingham WA: SPIEGoogle Scholar
  6. Featherstone JDB, Fried D. Fundamental interactions of lasers with dental hard tissues. Med Laser Appl 2001;16:181–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haider SM, White GE, Rich A. Combined effects of Argon laser irradiation and fluoride treatment in prevention of caries-like lesion formation in enamel. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 1999;23:247–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Helfenstein U, Steiner M. Fluoride varnishes (Duraphat): a meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hicks J, Winn D, Flaitz C, et al. In vivo caries formation in enamel following argon laser irradiation and combined fluoride and argon laser treatment: a clinical pilot study. Quintessence Int2004;35:15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hossain MM, Hossain M, Kimura Y, et al. Acquired acid resistance of enamel and dentine by CO2 laser irradiation with sodium fluoride solution. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2002;20:77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hsu CYS, Xiaoli G, Jisheng P. Effects of CO2 laser on fluoride uptake in enamel. J Dent 2004;32:161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leamy P, Brown PW, ten Huisen, et al. Fluoride uptake by hydroxyapatite formed by the hydrolysis of alphatricalcium phosphate. J Biomed Mater Res 1998; 42(3):458–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Magalhaes AC, Rios D, Machado MA, et al. Effect of Nd:YAG irradiation and fluoride application on dentine resistance to erosion in vitro. Photomed Laser Surg 2008;26:559–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nammour S, Demortier G, Florio P, et al. Increase of enamel fluoride retention by low fluence argon laser in vivo. Lasers Surg Med 2003; 33(4):260–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Oho T, Morioko T. A possible mechanism of acquired resistance of human dental enamel by laser irradiation. Caries Res 1990;24:86–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Petersen PE, Lennon MA. Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century: the WHO approach. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2004;32:319–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Ogawa H, et al. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health. Bull World Health Organ 2005; 83:661–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Robinson C. Fluoride and the carious lesion: interaction and mechanism of actions. EurArch Paediatr Dent2009;10:136–140Google Scholar
  19. Santaella MR, Braun A, Matson, et al. Effect of diode laser and fluoride varnish on initial surface demineralization of primary dentition enamel: an in vitro study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2004;14:199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Steiner-Oliveira C, Rodrigues LK, Lima EB, et al. Effect of the CO2 laser combined with fluoridated products on the inhibition of enamel demineralization. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008;9:113–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Stern RH, Sognnaes RF. Laser inhibition of dental caries suggested by first tests in vivo. J Am Dent Assoc 1972; 85:1087–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Tagliaferro EP, Rodrigues LK, Nobre Dos Santos M, et al. Combined effects of carbon dioxide laser and fluoride on demineralized primary enamel: an in vitro study. Caries Res 2007;41:74–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. ten Cate JM, Featherstone JD. Mechanistic aspects of the interactions between fluoride and dental enamel. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1991; 2:283–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. ten Cate JM.Current concepts on the theories of the mechanism of action of fluoride. Odontol Scand. 1999; 57(6):325–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tepper SA, Zehnder M, Pajarola GF et al. Increased fluoride uptake and acid resistance by CO2 laser-irradiation through topically applied fluoride on human enamel in vitro. J Dent 2004; 32:635–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. van Rijkom HM, Truin GJ, van’t Hof MA. A meta-analysis of clinical studies on the caries-inhibiting effect of fluoride gel treatment. Caries Res 1998; 32:83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Villalba Moreno J, Gonzalez Rodriguez A, de Dios Lopez Gonzalez J, et al. Increased fluoride uptake in human dental specimens treated with diode laser. Lasers Med Sci 2007; 22:137–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vlacic J, Meyers IA, Walsh LJ. Laser-activated fluoride treatment of enamel as prevention against erosion. Aust Dent J 2007;52:175–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wiegand A, Krieger C, Attin R, et al. Fluoride uptake and resistance to further demineralisation of demineralised enamel after application of differently concentrated acidulated sodium fluoride gels. Clin Oral Investig 2005; 9:52–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. C. Vitale
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Zaffe
    • 2
  • A. R. Botticell
    • 3
  • C. Caprioglio
    • 4
  1. 1.Dept. of Paediatric Dentistry Faculty of DentistryUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly
  2. 2.Dept. of Human Pathology, School of DentistryUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly
  3. 3.Dept. of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaPaviaItaly
  4. 4.PaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations