European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 181–186 | Cite as

Diversity of Lactobacillus species in deep carious lesions of primary molars

  • S. KneistEmail author
  • F. Schmidt
  • A. Callaway
  • B. Willershausen
  • S. Rupf
  • M. Wicht
  • B. Thiede


AIM: This was to determine the prevalence of Lactobacilli (LB) species in different stages of caries progression and are considered as secondary invaders of existing carious lesions and specialists for caries progression. METHODS: Carious dentine samples were collected from 70 primary molars (M) during step-wise (S1, S2: n = 35 M) or one-step (O1: n = 35 M) caries treatment and after 11 months of temporary restorations (S3, O2). LB were identified by selected physiological and biochemical characteristics, ratio of lactic acid isomers, electrophoretic mobilities of lactic acid dehydrogenases, and shotgun mass mapping by MALDI mass spectrometry. RESULTS: LB were isolated from 46% of soft dentine samples (S1). The prevalence of LB from hard dentine collected during caries excavation (O1) reached 34%, after 8 weeks of temporary filling (S2) 11%, and 9% each after 11 months of temporary restoration (S3, O2). The mean total bacterial counts (cfu) of soft dentine (S1) were 3.6 × 105. From hard dentine during caries excavation (O1 ) 4.4×104 cfu were calculated, at S2 3.7 × 103 cfu, at S3 0.1 × 103 cfu, and at O2 1.8 × 103 cfu. The percentages of LB in the cfu for LB positive dentine samples were for S1 / S2 / S3 / O1 / O2: 60% (16 M)/34% (4 M)/54% (3 M)/57% (9 M), and 64% (3 M). Five LB species were identified from carious dentine: L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. paracasei subsp. tolerans, L. rhamnosus, L. gasseri, and L. alimentarius. CONCLUSIONS: While L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei occurred in all caries progression stages, the other species were found only sporadically. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and L. rhamnosus might be the specialists of the LB in carious progression.

Key words

Lactobacillus species deep carious lesions hard and soft dentine caries progression 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aas JA, Griffen AL, Dardis SR, et al. BJ:Bacteria of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children and young adults. J Clin Microbiol 2008;46(4):1407–1417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguirre M, Collins MD:Lactic acid bacteria and human clinical infections. J Appl Bact1993;75:95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badet C, Thebaud NB: Ecology of lactobacilli in the oral cavity:A review of literature. Open Microbiol J 2008;2:38–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker MR, Paster BJ, Leys EJ, et al. Molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:1001–1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beighton D: The complex oral microflora of high risk individuals and groups and its role in the caries process. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2005;33:248–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjørndal L, Larsen T: Changes in the cultivable flora in deep carious lesions following a stepwise excavation procedure. Caries Res 2000;34(6):502–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Botha SJ, Boy SC, Botha FS, Senekal R: Lactobacillus species associated with active caries lesions. J DASA 1998;53:3–6.Google Scholar
  8. Byun R, Nadkarni MA, Chhour KL, et al. Quantitative analysis of diverse Lactobacillus species present in advanced dental caries. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:3128–3136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cannon JP, Lee TA, Bolanos JT, Danziger LH:Pathogenic relevance of Lactobacillus:a retrospective review of over 200 cases. Eur J Microbiol Infect Dis2005;24:31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ: Lactobacillus reuteri:overview of a new probiotic for humans and animals; in Reuter G, Klein G, Heidt PJ, Rusch H (eds):Microecology and Therapy. Herborn-Dill, Hernorn Litteae, 1997, pp 221–231.Google Scholar
  11. Caufield PW, Li Y, Dasanayake A, Saxena D: Diversity of lacobacilli in the oral cavities of young woman with dental caries. Caries Res 2007; 41:2–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chhour KL, Nadkarni MA, Byun R, et al. Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in advanced caries. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:843–849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corr SC, Hill C, Gahan GC: Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics inhibit gastrointestinal pathogens. Adv Food Nutr Res 2009;56:1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edwardsson S: Bacteriological studies on deep areas of carious dentine. Odontol Rev 1974; 35(Suppl 32):1–143.Google Scholar
  15. Fitzgerald RJ, Jordan HV, Archad HO: Dental caries in gnotobiotic rats infected with a variety of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Arch oral Biol 1966;11:473–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gasser F: Safety of lactic acid bacteria and their occurrence in human clinical infections. Bull Inst Pasteur 1994;92:45–67.Google Scholar
  17. Gilliland ST: Health and nutritional benefits from lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1990;87:175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heinrich R, Kneist S, Künzel W: A clinical controlled trial of indirect pulp cupping on deciduous molars. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 1991;46:581–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kandler O, Weiss N: Regular, nonsporing gram-positive rods; in Sneath PHA, Mair N, Sharpe ME, Holt JG (eds):Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1986, vol 2, pp 1208–1234.Google Scholar
  20. Kleinberg I: A mixed-bacteria ecological approach to understanding the role of the oral bacteria in dental caries causation:an alternative to Streptococcus mutans and the specific-plaque hypothesis. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002;13:108–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klinke T, Kneist S, de Soet JJ, et al. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and lactobacilli. Caries Res 2009;43:83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marchant S, Brailsford SR, Twomey AC, Roberts GJ, Beighton D: The predominant microflora of nursing caries lesions. Caries Res 2001;35:397–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marsh PD:Dental plaque as a biofilm and a microbial community-implications for health and disease. BMC Oral Health 2006;6(Suppl I):S14.Google Scholar
  24. Martin FE, Nadkarni MA, Jacques NA, Hunter N:Quantitative microbiological study of human carious dentine by culture and real-time PCR:association of anaerobes with histopathological changes in chronic pulpitis. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:1698–1704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Michalek SM, Hirasawa M, Kiyono H, et al. Oral ecology and virulence of Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans in gnotobiotic rats. Infect Immun 1981;33:690–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Munson MA, Banerjee A, Watson TF, Wade WG:Molecular analysis of the microflora associated with dental caries. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:3023–3029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schmidt F, Fiege T, Hustof HK, Kneist S, Thiede B:Shotgun mass mapping of Lactobacillus species and subspecies from caries related isolates by MALDI-MS. Proteomics 2009;9:1994–2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sookkhee S, Chulasiri M, Prachyabrued W:Lactic acid bacteria from healthy oral cavity of Thai volunteers:inhibition of oral pathogens. J Appl Microbiol 2001;90:172–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Takahashi N, Nyvad B:Caries ecology revisited:Microbial dynamics and the caries process. Caries Res 2008;42:409–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wicht MJ, Haak R, Schutt-Gerowitt H, Kneist S, Noack MJ: Suppression of caries-related microorganisms in dentine lesions after shortterm chlorhexidine or antibiotic treatment. Caries Res 2004;38:436–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wright JT, Cutter GR, Dasanyanake AP, Stiles HM, Caufield PW:Effect of conventional dental restorative treatment on bacteria in saliva. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1992;20:138–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis International 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kneist
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. Schmidt
    • 2
  • A. Callaway
    • 3
  • B. Willershausen
    • 3
  • S. Rupf
    • 4
  • M. Wicht
    • 5
  • B. Thiede
    • 6
  1. 1.Centre of DentistryFriedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, Biological LaboratoryJenaGermany
  2. 2.Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional GenomicsUniversity of GreifswaldNorway
  3. 3.Dept. of Operative DentistryUniversity Medical Centre Johannes Gutenberg University of MainzNorway
  4. 4.Dept. of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive DentistrySaarland University, HomburgNorway
  5. 5.Centre of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Operative Dentistry and PeriodontologyUniversity Cologne GermanyNorway
  6. 6.Biotechnology Centre of OsloUniversity of OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations