Advertisement

Dental anxiety and behaviour management problems in paediatric dentistry — a review of background factors and diagnostics

  • G. KlingbergEmail author
Article

Abstract

Aim: To review the literature concerning dental anxiety and dental behaviour management in children and adolescents with regards to prevalence, measurement, and aetiological factors. Study design: Review. Results: Dental anxiety and dental behaviour management problems are two different concepts related to each other but not identical. Each affects approximately 9% of the child and adolescence populations and both have a multifactorial background. Aetiological factors include the dental treatment as such (mainly pain, discomfort, and perceived lack of control), general emotional status, and temperament. Conclusions: In order to treat children and adolescents, paediatric dentists need to assess the patient in relation to psychological, personality, and treatment aspects, and assessments may be carried out using well established methods to gain more knowledge about the individual patient.

Key words

dental anxiety odontology paediatric dentistry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aartman IHA, van Everdingen T, Hoogstraten J, Schuurs AHB. Self-report measurements of dental anxiety and fear in children: a critical assessment. ASDC J Dent Child 1998;65:252–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvesalo I, Murtomaa H, Milgrom P, et al. The Dental Fear Survey Schedule: a study with Finnish children. Int J Paediatr Dent 1993;3:193–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnrup K, Broberg AG, Berggren U, Bodin L. Lack of cooperation in pediatric dentistry-the role of child personality characteristics. Pediatr Dent 2002;24:119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnrup K. Paediatric dentistry meets clinical child psychology. Studying groups of uncooperative child dental patients. Thesis. Göteborg: Göteborg University, 2003.Google Scholar
  5. Bedi R, Sutcliffe P, Donnan PT, McConnachie J. The prevalence of dental anxiety in a group of 13- and 14-year-old Scottish children. Int J Paediatr Dent 1992;2:17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bee H, Boyd DR. The Developing Child, 10th ed. Needham Heights: Pearson Higher Education, 2003.Google Scholar
  7. Blomqvist M, Holmberg K, Fernell E, Dahllöf G. A retrospective study of dental behavior management problems in children with attention and learning problems. Eur J Oral Sci 2004;112:406–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buss AH, Plomin R. Temperament in human nature. London: Free Association Books, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. Caspi A, Henry B, McGee RO, Moffitt TE, Silva PA. Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems from three to age fifteen. Child Dev1995;66:55–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuthbert MI, Melamed BG. A screening device: children at risk for dental fears and management problems. ASDC J Dent Child 1982;49:432–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Davey CG. Dental phobias and anxieties: evidence for conditioning processes in the acquisition and modulation of a learned fear. Behav Res Ther 1989;27:51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frankl SN, Shiere FR, Fogels HR. Should the parent remain with the child in the dental operatory? ASDC J Dent Child 1962;29:150–163.Google Scholar
  13. Gillberg C. Epidemiological overview. In: Gillberg C. Clinical Child Neuropsychiatry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1995, pp 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holst A, Crossner C-G. Direct ratings of acceptance of dental treatment in Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:258–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holst A, Ek L. Effect of systemized ‘behaviour shaping’ on children’s acceptance of dental treatment. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1988;16:349–355a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holst A. Behaviour management problems in child dentistry. Frequency, therapy and prediction. Thesis. Malmö: University of Lund, 1988. Swed Dent J 1988; suppl 54 b.Google Scholar
  17. Klingberg G, Berggren U, Norén JG. Dental fear in an urban Swedish child population: prevalence and concomitant factors. Community Dent Health 1994;11:208–214a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Klingberg G, Vannas Löfqvist L, Bjarnason S, Norén JG. Dental behavior management problems in Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:201–205b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Klingberg G. Dental fear and behavior management problems in children. A study of measurement, prevalence, concomitant factors, and clinical effects. Thesis. Göteborg: Göteborg University, 1995. Swed Dent J 1995; suppl 103.Google Scholar
  20. Klingberg G, Broberg AG. Temperament and child dental fear. Pediatr Dent 1998;20:237–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Klingberg G, Broberg AG. Dental fear/anxiety and dental behaviour management problems in children and adolescents: a review of prevalence and concomitant psychologilcal factors. Int J Paediatr Dent 2007;17:391–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Majstorovic M, Veerkamp JSJ, Skrinjaric I. Reliability and validity of measures used in assessing dental anxiety in 5-year-old Croatian children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2003;4:197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Majstorovic M, Veerkamp JSJ. Developmental changes in dental anxiety in a normative population of Dutch children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2005;6:30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Melamed BG, Weinstein D, Hawes R, Katin-Borland M. Reduction of fear-related dental management problems with use of filmed modelling. J Am Dent Assoc 1975;90:822–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Milgrom P, Vignehsa H, Weinstein P. Adolescent dental fear and control: prevalence and theoretical implications. Behav Res Ther 1992;30:367–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Neverlien PO. Dental anxiety in children and adults. Empirical studies in Norway. Thesis. Bergen: University of Bergen, 1991.Google Scholar
  27. Piaget J. The psychology of the child. Basic Books Inc. New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  28. Quinonez R, Santos RG, Boyar R, Cross H. Temperament and trait anxiety as predictors of child behavior prior to general anesthesia for dental surgery. Pediatr Dent 1997;19:427–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Raadal M, Milgrom P, Weinstein P, Mancl L, Cauce AM. The prevalence of dental anxiety in children from low-income families and its relationship to personality traits. J Dent Res 1995;74:1439–1443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Raadal M, Strand GV, Amarante EC, Kvale G. Relationship between caries prevalence at 5 years of age and dental anxiety at 10. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2002;3:22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rothbart MK, Posner MI, Hershey KL. Temperament, attention and developmental psychopathology. In: Cicchetti D, Cohen D (eds) Developmental Ppsychopathology Vol 1: Theory and methods. New York: Wiley, 1995, pp 315–342.Google Scholar
  32. Rud B, Kisling E. The influence of mental development on children’s acceptance of dental treatment. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1973;81:343–352.Google Scholar
  33. Skaret E. Dental anxiety, dental indifference and non-attendance among Norwegian adolescents. Thesis. Bergen: University of Bergen, 2000.Google Scholar
  34. ten Berge M. Dental fear in children: Prevalence, etiology and risk factors. Thesis. Amsterdam: University of Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, 2001.Google Scholar
  35. ten Berge M, Veerkamp JSJ, Hoogstraten J, Prins PJM. Childhood dental fear in the Netherlands: prevalence and normative data. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002;30:101–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thomas A, Chess S, Birch HG, Hertzig ME, Korn S. Behavioural individuality in early childhood. New York, NY: New York University Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  37. Tuutti H. Dental anxiety in children and adolescents. Thesis. Kuopio: University of Kuopio, 1986.Google Scholar
  38. Veerkamp JSJ, Gruythuysen RJM, van Amerongen WE, Hoogstraten J. Dental treatment of fearful children using nitrous oxide. Part 2: the parents’ point of view. ASDC J Dent Child 1992;59:115–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Venham L, Bengston D, Cipes M. Children’s responses to sequential dental visits. J Dent Res 1977;56:454–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wogelius P, Poulsen S, Sorensen HT. Prevalence of dental anxiety and behavior management problems among six to eight years old Danish children. Acta Odontol Scand 2003;61:178–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Adis Internationals 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of OdontologyMalmö University, Malmö and Mun-H-Center, National Orofacial Resource CentreGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations