Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 9–44 | Cite as

The Richfield Member of the Lucas Formation of the detroit river group (lower middle devonian), Michigan Basin, Michigan, USA

  • Judith L. Melvin


The Richfield Member of the Lucas Formation is composed of numerous anhdrite and carbonate cyclothems which prograded accross the Michigan Basin from the west to the east forming a wedge of sediments. The sulfates were precipitated as either anhydrite or gypsum (1) from the evaporation of pore fluids in the supratidal facies, (2) as lath crystals in the intertidal and subtidal facies, and (3) as subaqueous palmate crystals within the ponds on the supratidal flats and in the deeper basin. The low-relief platform was frequently inundated by basinal waters with only slight changes in water level. Thus, the sabkha was flooded with sheets of water which caused subaqueous palmate gypsum to precipitate so that a single anhydrite bed had both supratidal and subaqueous origins. The intertidal and supratidal zones were characterized by dolomitic algal mats which frequently were partially or totally dolomitized by replacement. The dolomite is typically euhedral to sub-euhedral with an idiotopic texture forming intercrystalline porosity. The subtidal facies was composed of peloids, ooids, and micrite with partial dolomitization. Basinal ionic concentrations regulated whether anhydrites or carbonates were deposited in this zone. Maximum thickness of the Richfield, up to 225 feet, occurred on the western edge where the maximum number of cyclothems were developed. To the east, the unit has fewer carbonate-anhydrite cyclothems and greater amounts of unaltered limestone which thinned to a feather edge.


Gypsum Anhydrite Evaporite Dolomitization Ooids 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ASQUITH, G.B., 1979, Subsurface Carbonate Depositional Models: A Concise Review, The Petroleum Publishing Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 121 p.Google Scholar
  2. BALL, M.M., 1972, Exploration Methods :or Stratigraphic Traps in Carbonate Rocks,in R.E. King, ed., Stratigraphic Oil and Gas Field — Classification, Exploration Methods, and Case Histories, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Memoir 16, Tulsa, p. 64–81.Google Scholar
  3. BALLY, A.W., and SNELSON, S., 1980, Realms of Subsidence,in A.D. Miall, ed., Facts and Principles of World Petroleum Occurence, Canadian Soc. Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 6, p. 9–94.Google Scholar
  4. COX, A., 1973, Plate Tectonics and Geomagnetic Reversals, W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 690 p.Google Scholar
  5. DAHLBERG, E.C., 1982, Applied Hydrodynamics in Petroleum Exploration, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 161 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. EHLERS, G.M., 1950, Revised Classification of the Middle Devonian Detroit River Group [abst(xx): Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 61, No. 12, pt. 2, p. 1455–1456.Google Scholar
  7. ELLS, G.D., 1969, Architecture of the Michigan Basin: Michigan Basin Geological Society, Annual Field Excursion, p. 60–88.Google Scholar
  8. FISHER, JAMES H., 1979, Structural History of the Michigan Basin [abst(xx): Hydrocarbon Potential of the Michigan Basin, Michigan Basin Geol. Soc., pg. 6.Google Scholar
  9. FOWLER, J.H., and KUENZI, W.D., 1978, Keeweenawan Turbidites in Michigan (Deep Borehole Red Beds), A Foundered Basin Sequence Developed During Evolution of a Proto-oceanic Rift System, Jour. Geophysical Research, v. 83, p. B58833-B5843.Google Scholar
  10. FRIEDMAN, G.M., 1980, Dolomite is an Evaporite Mineral: Evidence from the Rock Record and from Sea-Marginal Ponds of the Red Sea,in Zenger, D.H., J.B. Dunham and R.L. Ethington, eds., Concepts and Models of Dolomitization, Soc. Econ. Paleontologists Mineralogists, Spec. Pub. No. 28, p. 69–80.Google Scholar
  11. FRIEDMAN, G.M. and SANDERS, J.E., 1978, Principals of Sedimentology. New York, John Wiley & Sons 792 p.Google Scholar
  12. GARDNER, W.C., 1974, Middle Devonian Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments in the Michigan Basin: Michigan Basin Geol. Soc., No. 1, 138 p.Google Scholar
  13. HAUTAU, G., 1952, The Richfield Challenge, Michigan Dept. of Conservation, Geological Survey, Progress Report No. 15.Google Scholar
  14. HINZE, W.J., WOLD, R.J. and O’HARA, N.W., 1982, Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Studies of Lake Superior, in R.J. Wold and W.J. Hinze, eds., Geology and Tectonics of the Lake Superior Basin, Geol. Soc. America, Memoir 156, Boulder, Colorado, p. 203–222.Google Scholar
  15. HOFFMANN, P., 1974, Shallow and Deceptive Stromatolitesin Lower Proterozoic Platformbasin Facies Changes, Great Slave Lake, Canada. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 58, p. 856–867.Google Scholar
  16. KASTNER, M., 1983, Origin of Dolomite and Its Spatial and Chronological Distribution — A New Insight [abst.], Bulletin of the Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, v. 67, p. 2156.Google Scholar
  17. KENDALL, A.C., 1979, Facies Model 14, Subaqueous Evaporites, in R.G. Walker, ed., Facies Models, Geoscience Canadian Reprint Series 1, p. 159–174.Google Scholar
  18. KINSMAN, D.J.J., 1969, Models of Formation, Sedimentary Associations, and Diagenetic Features of Shallow-water and Supratidal Evaporites, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geology Bull., v. 53, p. 830–840.Google Scholar
  19. KLASNER, J.S., CANNON, W.F. and VAN SCHMUS, W.R., 1982, The pre- Keeweenawan Tectonic History of Southern Canadian Shield and Its Influence on Formation of the Midcontinent Rift, in R.J. Wold and W.J. Hinze, eds., Geology and Tectonics of the Lake Superior Basin, Geol. Soc. America, Memoir, 156, Boulder, Colorado, p. 27–46.Google Scholar
  20. KRAUSKOPF, K.B., 1979, Introduction to Geochemistry, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 617 p.Google Scholar
  21. LANDES, K.E., 1951, Detroit River Group in the Michigan Basin: U.S. Geol. Survey, Circular 133, 23 p.Google Scholar
  22. LILIENTHAL, R.L., 1978, Stratigraphic Cross-Sections of the Michigan Basin, Michigan Geological Survey, Division, Report No. 19.Google Scholar
  23. LOGAN, B.W., HOFFMAN, P. and GEBELEIN, C.D., 1974, Algal Mats, Cryptalgal Fabrics, and Structures, Hamelin Pool, Western Australia, in Brian W. Logan et al, Evolution and Diagenesis of Quaternary Carbonate Sequences, Shark Bay, Western Australia, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 22, p. 140–194.Google Scholar
  24. LONGMAN, M.W., 1981, Carbonate Diagenesis as a Control on Stratigraphic Traps (with examples from the Williston Basin), Education Course Note Series #21, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, 159 p.Google Scholar
  25. MATTHEWS, R. DAVID, 1977, Evaporitic Cycles and Lithofacies on Lucas Formation, Detroit River Group, Devonian, Midland, Michiganin Fisher, J.H., ed.: Reefs and Evaporites-Concepts and Depositional Models, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull. Studies in Geology No. 5, p. 73–91.Google Scholar
  26. MELVIN, J.L., 1984, Subsurface Stratigraphy and Depositional Systems of the Richfield Member of the Lucas Formation, Lower Middle Devonian, Clare and Gladwin Counties, Michigan, unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Arkansas, 76 p.Google Scholar
  27. MIALL, A.D., 1984, Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis, Springer-Verlag, New York, 490 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. NUNN, J.A., 1981, Thermal Contraction and Flexure of Intracratonic Basins: A Three-Dimensional Study of the Michigan Basin, PhD Dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 353 p.Google Scholar
  29. PICKETT, G.R., 1977, Recognition of Environments and Carbonate Rock Type Identification in Formation Evaluation Manual Unit II, section exploration wells: Oil and Gas Consultants International Inc., p. 4–25.Google Scholar
  30. POTTER, P.E. and PRYOR, W.A., 1961: Dispersal Centers of Paleozoic and Later Clastics of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Adjacent Areas, Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 72, p. 1195–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. PROUTY, C.E., 1983, The Tectonic Development of the Michigan Basin Intrastructures: Tectonics, Structure and Karst in Northern Lower Michigan, Michigan Basin Geol. Soc. Field Conference, p. 36–80.Google Scholar
  32. PEECKMAN, A. and FRIEDMAN, G.M., 1982, Exploration for Carbonate Petroleum Reservoir, Elf-Aquitaine Centres de Rescherches de Boussens et de Pau, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 213.Google Scholar
  33. RICKARD, L.V., 1984, Correlation of the Subsurface Lower and Middle Devonian of the Lake Erie Region, Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 95, p. 814–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. SANFORD, B.V., 1967, Devonian of Ontario and Michiganin International Symposium on the Devonian: Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists, v. 1.Google Scholar
  35. SCHREIBER, B.C., ROTH, M.S. and HELMAN, M.L., 1982, Recognition of Primary Facies Charac teristics of Evaporites and the Differentiation of These Forms From Diagenetic Over prints, in C. R. Handford, R.C. Loucks, G.R. Davies, eds., Depositional and Diage netic Spectra of Evaporites — A core Workshop, Soc. Econ. Paleontologists Miner alogists, Core Workshop No. 3, p. 1–33.Google Scholar
  36. SEIBOLD, E. and BERGER, W.H., 1982, The Sea Floor, Springer-Verlag Publishers, Berlin, 288 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SHEARMAN, D.J., 1963, Recent Anhydrite, Gypsum, Dolomite, and Halite from the Coastal States of the Arabian Shore of the Persian Gulf: Geol. Soc. London Proc., No. 607, p. 63–65.Google Scholar
  38. SHEARMAN, D.J., 1978, Evaporites of Coastal Sabkhas,in Dean, W.E. and Schreiber, B.C., eds., Marine Evaporites, Soc. Econ. Paleon tologists Mineralogists, Short Course No. 4, Tulsa, p. 6–20.Google Scholar
  39. SLEEP, N.H., and SLOSS, L.L., 1980, The Michigan Basin, in A.W. Bally, P.L. Bender, T.R. McGetchin and R.I. Walcott, eds., Dynamics of Plate Interiors, Am. Geophysics Union and Geol. Soc. America, Geodynamics Series, V. 1, p. 93–98.Google Scholar
  40. SLOSS, L.L., 1963, Sequences in the Cratonic Interior of North America, Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 74, p. 93–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. SLOSS, L.L., 1984, Comparative Anatomy of Cratonic Unconformities, in J.S. Schlee, ed., Interregional Unconformities and Hydrocarbon Accumulation, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 36, p. 1–6.Google Scholar
  42. USIGLIO, M.J., 1849, Etudes sur la Composition de l’eau de la Mediterranee et sur L’exploitation des sels qu’elle contient,in Fairbridge, R.W. and J. Bourgeois, eds., The Enclopedia of Sedimentology, Dowden, Hutchison and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, p. 901.Google Scholar
  43. VAIL, P.R., and MITCHUM, R.M., Jr. and S. THOMPSON, II, 1977, Seismic Stratigraphy and Global Changes of Sea Level, Part Four, Global Cycles of Relative Changes of Sea Level, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 26, p. 83–98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith L. Melvin
    • 1
  1. 1.Garland

Personalised recommendations