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Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 121–133 | Cite as

Paleosubsidence and active subsidence due to evaporite dissolution in Spain

  • Francisco GuitérrezEmail author
  • Federico Ortí
  • Mateo Gutiérrez
  • Alfredo Pérez-González
  • Gerardo Benito
  • F. Javier Gracia
  • Juan José Durán
Article

Abstract

Evaporite formations crop out or are at shallow depth present in an extensive area of Spain. These soluble sediments occur in diverse geological domains and were deposited over a long time span, from the Triassic up to the present day. Broadly, the Mesozoic and Paleogene formations (Alpine cycle) are affected by compressional structures, wheras the Neogene (post-orogenic) sediments remain underformed. Subsidence caused by subsurface dissolution of evaporites (subjacent karst) takes place in three main types of stratigraphic settings: a) subsidence affecting evaporite-bearing Mesozoic and Tertiary successions (interstratal karst); b) subsidence in Quaternary alluvial deposits related to the exorheic evolution of present-day fluvial systems (alluvial or mantled karst); and c) subsidence in exposed evaporites (uncovered karst). These types may be represented by paleosubsidence phenomena (synsedimentary and/or postsedimentary) recognizable in the stratigraphic record, or by equivalent, currently active or modern examples which have a surface expression. Interstratal karstification of Mesozoic marine evaporites, and the consequent subsidence of overlying strata, is revealed by stratiform collapse breccias and wedge outs of the evaporites grading into unsoluble residues. In several Tertiary basins, the sediments overlying evaporites locally show synsedimentary and/or postsedimentary subsidence structures. Dissolution-induced subsidence coeval with sedimentation is accompanied by local thicknening of strata in basin-like structures with convergent dips and cumulative wedge-out systems. This sinking process controls the generation of depositional environments and lithofacies distribution. Postsedimentary subsidence produces a great variety of gravitational deformations in Tertiary supra-evaporitic units, including both ductile and brittle structures (flexures, synforms, fractures, collapse, and brecciation). Quaternary fluvial terrace deposits overlying evaporites show anomalous thickenings (>150m) caused by a dissolution-induced subsidence process in the alluvial plain, which is balanced by alluvial aggradation. The complex evolution (in time and space) of paleosubsidence leads to intricate and chaotic structures in the alluvium, which may be erroneously interpreted as pure tectonic deformations. The current subsidence and generation of sinkholes due to suballuvial karstification constitutes a geohazard which affects large, densely populated areas, and thus endangers human safety and poses limitations on development. An outstanding example can be seen in Calatayud, an important historical city where subsidence has severely damaged highly valuable monuments. Subsidence resulting from the underground karstification of evaporites has caused or influenced the generation of some important modern lacustrine basins, such as Gallocanta, Fuente de Piedra, and Banyoles Lakes. The sudden formation of sinkholes due to collapse of cave roofs is fairly frequent in some evaporite outcrops. Very harmful and spectacular subsidence activity is currently occurring in the Cardona salt diapir, where subsidence has been dramatically exacerbated by mining practices.

Keywords

Evaporite Betic Cordillera Ebro Basin Collapse Sinkhole Triassic Evaporite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Guitérrez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Federico Ortí
    • 2
  • Mateo Gutiérrez
    • 1
  • Alfredo Pérez-González
    • 3
  • Gerardo Benito
    • 4
    • 5
  • F. Javier Gracia
    • 6
  • Juan José Durán
    • 7
  1. 1.Geodinámica, Edificio GeológicasUniversity of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Departmento de Petrología, Geoquímica y Prospección Geológica, Facultad de Geología, Universidad de BarcelonaUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Departamendo de Geodinámica, Facultad de GeológicasUniversity Complutense of MadridMadridSpain
  4. 4.Centro de Estudios MedioambientalesCSICMadridSpain
  5. 5.Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (C.S.I.C.)MadridSpain
  6. 6.Facultad de Ciencias del MarUniversity of CádizPuerto Real, CádizSpain
  7. 7.Instituto Tecnológico y Geominero de España, MadridMadridSpain

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